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Auditory deficits Day 11. Brain & Language LING 411/412/489 NSCI 411/611/489/689 Harry Howard Tulane University. Q3. Q3 answers. A phonological feature is a representation of (a) the articulation of a speech sound, (b) the perception of a speech sound, or (c) both (a) and (b) .

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Auditory deficitsDay 11

Brain & Language

LING 411/412/489

NSCI 411/611/489/689

Harry Howard

Tulane University



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Q3 answers

  • A phonological feature is a representation of (a) the articulation of a speech sound, (b) the perception of a speech sound, or (c) both (a) and (b).

  • A formant is part of the acoustic properties of a (a) consonant or (b) vowel.

  • The fundamental frequency is NOT (a) the basic frequency of the human voice that all others are built on, (b) the lowest band of energy in a vowel, or (c) higher on average in women than men.

  • Which is NOT a feature of vowels: (a) manner, (b) height, or (c) advancement (front/back)?

  • Which is NOT a feature of consonants: (a) place, (b) rounding, or (c) voicing?

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Q3 answers, cont.

  • Would you call the following model of speech comprehension (a) serial or (b) parallel? acoustic-phonetic analysis > sub-lexical processing > lexical-semantic access > comprehension

  • The flaw in the model in (6) claimed by Hickok & Poeppel (2004) is that (a) sub-lexical processing > acoustic-phonetic analysis, (b) there are patients who cannot perform sub-lexical processing tasks accurately, yet have normal comprehension, or (c) there are patients who cannot perform acoustic-phonetic analysis accurately and have abnormal comprehension.

  • We would expect to be in the ventral stream (a) the interface between sound and meaning, (b) the interface between sound and motor control, or (c) the basic sound codes.

  • We would expect to be in the dorsal stream (a) the interface between sound and meaning, (b) the interface between sound and motor control, or (c) the basic sound codes.

  • A double dissociation involves (a) a group of subjects that performs inaccurately on task A but not task B, (b) one group of subjects that performs inaccurately on task A but not on task B and another group of subjects that performs inaccurately on task B but not on task A, or (c) a group of subjects that performs inaccurately on both tasks A and B.

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Course administration

  • Course home page

    • http://www.tulane.edu/~ling/LING411/

  • Readings are found:

    • MyTulane > BrainLanguage_CC: Brain and Language(Combined) > Course Documents

  • Public Service tasks

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University



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Abstract

  • This article examines four disorders of auditory processing that can result from selective brain damage in an effort to derive a plausible functional and neuroanatomical model of audition.

  • The article begins by identifying three possible reasons why models of auditory processing have been slower to emerge than models of visual processing:

  • The four auditory disorders are then reviewed and current theories of auditory processing considered.

  • Taken together, these disorders suggest a modular architecture analogous to models of visual processing that have been derived from studying neurological patients.

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Four disorders of auditory processing

  • Cortical deafness

  • Pure word deafness

  • Auditory agnosia

  • Phonagnosia

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Reasons for delay in development of models of auditory processing

  • Neuroanatomical differences between the visual and auditory systems

    • the auditory system has a neuroanatomical redundancy built into it: it transmits information about sound in all parts of space to both hemispheres, rather than to one

      • result: disorders of auditory processing are quite rare

      • dichotic listening tasks are less informative than visual-half field presentation

    • diagnostic difficulty caused by the close relationship between speech comprehension and auditory processing

  • Terminological confusions relating to auditory processing disorders

    • “verbal processing” can conflated with “auditory processing”

  • Technical factors that have made auditory stimuli more difficult to study than visual stimuli

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Cortical deafness processing

  • Wernicke and Friedlander (1883) described a patient who was unable to hear any sounds, but had no apparent damage to the hearing apparatus and labelled the disorder cortical deafness.

  • One review of the literature, reported “only 12 cases of significant deafness due to purely cerebral pathology” (Graham, Greenwood & Lecky, 1980:43)

  • Identifying cases of cortical deafness has proved to be difficult for several reasons.

    • patients rarely suffer bilateral lesions in the critical region of auditory cortex in the lateral temporal lobes

    • some patients believed to suffer from cortical deafness may, in fact, suffer from auditory inattention or neglect

    • cortical deafness is often transient, resolving to a less severe, or more specific, auditory processing disorder such as pure word deafness or auditory agnosia

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Agnosia overview processing

  • Agnosia: an impairment in which a patient fails to recognize a stimulus in a sensory modality, although perception in the modality is unimpaired

  • Audition

    • auditory agnosia

    • pure word deafness (auditory-verbal agnosia)

    • phonagnosia

  • Vision

    • visual agnosia: normal vision, can’t recognize objects

    • alexia (word blindness): normal vision, can’t recognize written language, i.e. can’t read

    • prosopagnosia

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Auditory agnosia processing

  • It is best defined as an inability to recognize auditorily presented sounds independent of any deficit in processing spoken language.

    • at times, it has been replaced by a more general definition refering to a deficit involving any type of auditory stimuli

  • It dates back to Freud (1891), but the first case of ‘pure’ auditory agnosia appears to have been reported only thirty years ago (Spreen et al., 1965).

    • They presented a patient who was severely impaired at identifying a variety of sounds such as coughing, whistling and a baby crying, but showed no evidence of impaired speech comprehension

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Pure word deafness processingauditory-verbal agnosia

  • Kussmaul (1877) coined the term “pure word deafness” to refer to an inability to comprehend spoken words despite intact hearing, speech production and reading ability.

    • one patient complained that speech sounded “like a great noise all the time . . . like a gramophone, boom, boom, boom, jumbled together like foreign folks speaking in the distance”

    • another said: “I can hear you talking but I can’t translate it”

    • Examiner: What did you eat for breakfast?

    • Patient: Breakfast, breakfast, it sounds familiar but it doesn’t speak to me. (Obler & Gjerlow 1999:45)

  • The experience of word sounds appears to undergo a qualitative change, and some word deaf patients cannot judge the length of a word

  • However, some patients appear able to extract information about the speaker from their voice (i.e., sex, age, region of origin, or affective information) despite being unable to comprehend the spoken message

  • Despite this impairment in speech comprehension, these patients can be unimpaired at identifying non-linguistic sounds

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Phonagnosia processing

  • An impairment in the ability to recognize familiar voices, just as prosopagnosia reflects an impairment in the ability to recognize familiar faces (Van Lancker and Canter 1982)

    • subjects were asked to identify which of four names or faces matched a particular famous voice

  • Subsequent research produced evidence for a double dissociation between memory for familiar voices and the ability to discriminate between unfamiliar voices:

    • One group of patients performed normally on the discrimination task but was impaired on the memory task,

    • whereas another group of patients performed normally on the memory task, but was impaired on the discrimination task

  • Despite being unable to identify voices, patients suffering from phonagnosia appear to be able to understand speech and identify nonverbal sounds (Van Lancker and Kreiman, 1987).

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Summary processing

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Optic aphasia processing

  • A patient CANNOT name an object presented visually,

    • but the patient CAN …

      • name the object from a verbal description

      • describe the function of the object

      • sort pictures of objects into categories

    • so it is not visual agnosia.

  • Cause: impairment of pathway from visual object perception to semantic representation

    • the object’s semantic representation can be activated only enough for basic tasks, such as sorting, but not enough for naming

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University


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Next time processing

Lateralization of phonology - Myers §4


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