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Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook (v1.6). William B. Norton Co-Founder & Chief Technical Liaison. Internet Researcher. 90% externally focused Many documents on Protocols Lack of Operations documents Research: Peering How does Peering work? What are the definitions?

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Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook (v1.6)

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Asia pacific peering guidebook v1 6 l.jpg

Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook (v1.6)

William B. Norton

Co-Founder & Chief Technical Liaison

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Internet Researcher

  • 90% externally focused

  • Many documents on Protocols

  • Lack of Operations documents

  • Research: Peering

    • How does Peering work?

    • What are the definitions?

    • What are the “Tricks of the Trade?”

White paper process..

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Community Operations Research

  • “Ground Truth” w/dozens of experts

  • Write White Paper v0.1

  • Walk community through WP for comments

  • Revise White Paper into new version

  • Present White Paper at conferences

  • Solicit comments over lunches and dinners

White papers so far…

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Internet Operations White Papers

  • “Interconnection Strategies for ISPs”

  • “Internet Service Providers and Peering”

  • “A Business Case for Peering”

  • “The Art of Peering: The Peering Playbook”

  • “The Peering Simulation Game”

  • “Do ATM-based Internet Exchanges Make Sense Anymore?”

  • “Evolution of the U.S. Peering Ecosystem”

  • “Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook”

Freely available. See Web site or send e-mail to

Or Google for “William B. Norton”

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Research Topic: Peering in Asia

  • Goals of this 12 month research

    • Document how the Internet Peering Ecosystems in Asia are different from the rest of the world

    • What did Peering Coordinators find counter-intuitive?

    • What surprises did they run into as they expanded their networks into and within Asia?

  • Result: “The Asia Pacific Internet Peering Ecosystem” (v1.6)

    • Value of IX, Peering Policies, Biz cases for Peering in AP Ecosystems, etc.

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What is this “Peering Ecosystem?”

  • Global Internet Peering Ecosystem: A system of autonomous but interconnected Internet Regions, each with players that provide connectivity and content to the Internet.

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The Global Internet Peering Ecosystem

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Ecosystem Players

  • Tier 1 ISPs (ISPs that have access to all the Internet Peering Ecosystem routes solely through free peering relationships),

  • Tier 2 ISPs (that must buy transit from someone to reach routes within the Internet Peering Ecosystem), and

  • Content Providers who don’t sell access to the Internet but offer content.

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Motivations: Peering Policy

  • Def: A Restrictive Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination not to peer.

  • Def: A Selective Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination to peer, but with some conditions

  • Def: An Open Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination to peer with anyone.

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Japan Peering Ecosystem

In Japan, the set of Tier 1 ISPs include

  • Japan Telecom (JT Open Data Network (ODN)),

  • NTT (and Internet Initiative Japan (IIJ)),

  • KDDI, and


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Japanese Peering Ecosystem

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Japanese Peering Ecosystem

  • 80% JP Traffic stays in JP

  • Tier 1 ISPs own infrastructure

  • Major Disruption: Yahoo!BB (48Gbps)

  • 40+Mbps DSL for <$50 USD/mo

  • FTTH for $100/mo

  • 1Mbps streaming TV

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Interconnect Region

Traffic in Tokyo

Distributed soon

Y!BB especially

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Domestic Peering in Japan


peering@ doesn’t work – need legs o the ground

Japanese surprises: 3 IXes. Which one to use?

Monthly Peering cost=$2500 for local loop, $2500 for rack, $4500 FastE port

Transit~$110 for 100Mbps commit

Aggregate traffic volume 34Gbps

Value of JPIX to participant=(34000Mbps*$110/Mbps)/109 - $11,500=$4096/mo

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Business Case for JP Peering

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JP Peering w/FastE

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JP Peering w/FastE

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JP Peering w/gigE

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JP Peering w/gigE

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Singapore Peering Ecosystem




20% stays

in SG

Transit is



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Business Case for SG Peering

2nd highest transit prices

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SG Peering with FastE

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SG Peering w/FastE

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SG Peering w/gigE

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SG Peering w/gigE

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Australian Peering Ecosystem

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Australian Peering Ecosystem

  • Only country to Regulate Peering

  • Restrictive Peering – Comindico Story

  • Local Loops Expensive in AU

    • Retail STM-1 (155M) in Hong Kong $3000/mo

    • Retail 4M Ethernet in Australia $3000/mo ternet

  • Relatively low traffic volume

    • 200Mbps traffic between T1 and T2

  • “Content that transcends the language barrier” disallowed

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AU Interconnect Regions

Local Loops Expensive

Volume Billing

Grandma Story

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Business Case for AU Peering

Most expensive

“End of the World”

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AU Peering with FastE

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AU Peering with FastE

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AU Peering with gigE

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AU Peering with gigE

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5 Reasons to expand into and within Asia

  • For Incumbent Tier 1 ISPs to peer their routes outside their home market.

  • To meet U.S. Tier 1 Peering Prerequisites.

  • Customers want them in Asia.

  • Global Marketing Benefits

  • Sell Transit into a high cost transit market.

Costs to expand to Asia…

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Lesson #1 - Tier 1 ISPs Do Not Want to Peer in their Internet Region

  • As described in the Foreign Tier 1 ISP Dynamic

  • Peering in Adjacent Internet Regions OK

  • Peering in U.S.

    • Also Get Cheap U.S. Transit

    • Also Get Across U.S. to Europe

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Lesson #2 – There are Several Challenges Peering in Asia

  • Many Language Zones.

    • Language

    • Internet traffic

  • Asia is spread across timezones

  • Asia is spread across oceans

  • Local Loop Costs

  • Transit costs are highly variable and in some cases highly discriminatory across Asia:

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Lesson #3 – Some Creative Peering Deals

  • “…Peering iff Transport provided to HK where we will peer out-of-country…”

  • Peering w/transit purchase common

  • Peered traffic can not be announced back in to country

  • Can not peer with my customers

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Lesson #4 - International Peering Gotcha: “Tromboning” Traffic through the U.S.

1 AS Hop

Across Ocean


2 AS Hops

Across Town

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Lesson #5 - Local Presence Required

  • Right Person

  • Right Time

  • Manage Time Zone Diff

  • Manage Peering Socializing

  • Like old England “Intermediary”

Source: Nigel Titley (FLAG)

And Erasmus Ng (T-Systems)

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Lesson #6 - Separation of International and Domestic Peering

  • New Zealand – Separate pipes for Transit & Domestic Traffic

  • Transpacific VERY expensive

  • 80% traffic to/from U.S.

  • In Japan & Australia as well?

Source: Joe Abley (ISC)

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Lesson #7 – “Content that Transcends the Language Barrier”

  • Hosted content not allowed in many parts of Asia

  • Hosted overseas

  • Large volume of traffic

  • Affects peering and Int’l BW planning

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Lesson #8 – No True Regional Content in Asia

  • Like South America

  • Few Asian countries host regional content

  • Contiguous language zones:

    • Hong Kong, Taiwan, China

  • Mostly, local eyeballs want local content

  • Japan: 80% traffic stays in Japan

  • Singapore: 80% traffic leaves Singapore

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Lesson #9 – Content Peering in Asia Works

  • Microsoft – 100M XP Updates

    • Only delivered over Peering links

    • Otherwise, overseas transit

    • Increases your 95th percentile billables

  • Yahoo!

    • Motivated first by best customer experience

    • Deployed content locally

    • Peering broadly

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  • Early Research

  • International Peering Ecosystem

  • Internet Regions

  • Foreign Tier 1 ISP Peering Dynamic

  • Capture Peering Coordinator Data

  • Asia Vibrant and Leap Frogging U.S. in some ways

  • White Paper Available: Send e-mail to

  • Login