A Climate Change And Human Security Of Modern Nation States in South Pacific
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A Climate Change And Human Security Of Modern Nation States in South Pacific Mariko Yoshida Keio University Of Policy Management. From Kyoto Protocol’s reviews….

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A Climate Change And Human Security Of Modern Nation States in South PacificMariko YoshidaKeio University Of Policy Management


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From Kyoto Protocol’s reviews… in South Pacific

  • The output of greenhouse gases by major 26 developed countries was over 14.4 billion tons, which was 11% above the one in 1990. (COP/MOP2 held in Nairobi)

  • Ad-Hoc Working Group (AWG) and Least Developing Countries (LDC) agreed it is sort of premature to set numeric goals and continue utilizing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) from 2013 on.


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Case Study: Tuvalu and a recent sea level rise in South Pacific

  • the forth smallest low-lying coral atolls country and susceptible to changes in sea level; one of places on earth that is most vulnerable to the affects of global warming

  • estimated recent sea level rise of 20-40 centimeters in the next 100 years could make Tuvalu uninhabitable

    ….Pacific island countries have contributed an estimated 0.06 per cent to global greenhouse emissions


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Tuvalu in South Pacific


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Case Study: Tuvalu and a recent sea level rise in South Pacific

・Nine atolls which have a total land area of 27 square km(the fourth smallest country in terms of land area).

・Formerly known as the Ellice Islands,separated from the Gilbert Islands and achieved independence from Great Britain in 1978

・Population:11,636 (2005)

・Population growth rate:1.51%

(2006)


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Specific Economic Model: MIRAB in South Pacific

・ MIRAB :

South Pacific economic model composed of Migration, Remittances, Aid and Bureaucracy (particularly Kiribati, Tuvalu, Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelau)- Bertram and Watters, 1985.

[Economic hardships]

・  the lack of formal-sector domestic economic activity presented a conceptual challenge to the conventional analysis of developing economies in small nations

・ Tuvalu reportedly makes millions of dollars each year by leasing its highly marketable .tv Internet domain and became a member of the United Nations in 2000

[Politic dependency?]

・ Small Island developing states formed Alliance Of Small Island States (AOSIS) for executions of the environment action plan


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Effects on daily life in South Pacific

  • pulaka (kind of Talo) pits, an essential part of the subsistence economy of Tuvalu, are corroded because of seawater

  • The soil erosion and flooding at the ground level since 1980s

  • two families were forced to flee temporarily to their relative’s place for couple of days last spring. (reported by Disaster office)

  • “It is affecting the food supply of the island and the very livelihood of the people” (former PM Sopo’aga, 2004)



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Flooding and Evacuation:1 in South Pacific


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Flooding and Evacuation:2 in South Pacific


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The concept of “Environmental Refugees” in South Pacific

  • 50 millions environmental refugees by 2010; described as “person who no longer gains a secure livelihood in their traditional homelands because of what are primarily environmental factors of unusual scope” (World Watch Institute)

  • Not approved by definition of international law

  • Tuvalu government expects more than 2000 working immigrants living in New Zealand. In 2004,New Zealand government allowed 75 citizens of Tuvalu to be granted residence in New Zealand each year.


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Government in South Pacific

Fale Kaupule

  • The island chief and members are significant landowners or the head of their family so they are aware of even a slight change of their possessions

  • the information on global phenomenon of climate change and sea level rise on the radio news by the government in the end of 1980’s “nothing suspicious in daily life.“ (island chiefs in Vaitupu, Nukufetau and Nui)→first found pulaka pit corroded was from the end of 1990’s to 2001 “scarcely discussed the concept of sea level rise and we rely on the government about this issue ”

  • necessary to bridge information gap between local experiences and massive global-level risks expected scientifically

Ex: land ownership, water supply

Aliki

(a leader of traditional Tuvaluan society)


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Thank you. in South Pacific


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