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APTS-BIB509. 4. Introduction to Genesis. General Introduction. Name: tyvarb , gene,sewj , etc.

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general introduction
General Introduction
  • Name: tyvarb, gene,sewj, etc.
  • “The practice of naming a book by its opening word or words was widespread in the ancient Near East. Occasionally, other titles for this book were current among Jews, such as Sefer ha-Yashar (The Book of the Upright), which refers to the partriarchs, whose lives inform the bulk of the work. . . . " [Sarna, JPS, xiii]
general introduction3
General Introduction
  • Authorship:
    • Moses wrote it based on direct attribution in legal material in the Pentateuch (Ex 24.4; 30.11, 17; 33.1, 5, 29; Lev 1.1; 4.1; 6.1; Num 4.1; Deut 1.1, 5; 5.1; 31.22, 30; 33.1)
    • Moses used oral and/or written sources, while allowing for copyists’ footnotes
    • A work attributed to Moses
    • Multiple authors and editors
general introduction4
General Introduction
  • "While Genesis is an anonymous work, as are the other four books of the Pentateuch, its attributive author is Moses. However, to what extent he wrote any of its contents, with the possible exception of all or part of the Joseph narratives, is unknown. In attributing Mosaic authorship to the Pentateuch as a whole, conservative scholars have pointed out that the Torah in its entirety must not necessarily be assumed to have been the work of his own hands, any more that any of the stelae of antiquity were the product of direct activity
general introduction5
General Introduction

on the part of their attributive authors. Some writers, such as Young, have not precluded the possibility that the writer drew on earlier written sources, but in general the ascription of Mosaicity to the Pentateuch implies its historicity and its formulation by Moses under divine inspiration, with the supposition that later editors may have revised the contents somewhat in accord with the traditions of the ANE scribes." [R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, 542]

the text of genesis
The Text of Genesis

1. Proto-Masoretic & the Masoretic text (MT)

  • "Despite the relative lateness of the main MT manuscripts [Leningrad B19 =11th cen.], it is universally recognized that the MT of Genesis has preserved a Hebrew text with remarkable fidelity . . . .” [Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary, xxv]
the text of genesis7
The Text of Genesis

1. Proto-Masoretic & the Masoretic text (MT)

  • William P. Brown has argued to that the LXX of Genesis 1:1-2:3 is older than the MT. [Brown, William. Structure, Role, and Ideology in the Hebrew Texts of Genesis 1:1-2:3. SBL Diss. 132. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993]
the text of genesis8
The Text of Genesis

2. Samaritan Pentateuch (SP)

2.1 "The Samaritan text is slightly expansionistic in Genesis. In some 80 cases SAM is longer than MT, while it is shorter than MT in only 12 cases. The Septuagint is often longer in Genesis.” [Kim, 21]

2.2 The common harmonizations of SAM and LXX are usually in pluses which are added either in accordance with a more frequently occurring expression or under the influence of parallel passages in the context. The same pertains to transpositions.” [Kim, 83]

the text of genesis9
The Text of Genesis

2.3 “Besides harmonization, one of the most distinct features of SAM in Genesis is that SAM contains a relatively large number of scribal corrections such as stylistic alterations, corrections of MT\'s difficult reading, and systematic alterations of the ages in the chronologies.” [Kim, 85]

the text of genesis10
The Text of Genesis

3. Septuagint (LXX)

3.1 “the Septuagint is longer than the other two texts in Genesis. Against the joint text of SAM and MT, it contains 20 long pluses and 428 short pluses in contrast to 8 long minuses and 148 short minuses. the LXX also deviates in sequence in chapter 31 (vv. 26-27, 32-33, 47-52), 35:16-22, and 47.5-6. With regard to expansion and sequence, SAM is closer to MT than to LXX.” [Kim, 83]

the text of genesis11
The Text of Genesis

4.1 “The remains of possible twenty manuscripts were unearthed at Qumran itself: one in Cave 1, one in Cave 2, perhaps as many as sixteen in Cave 4, one in Cave 6, and one in Cave 8. In addition to these manuscripts from the caves to the north of Wadi Qumran, remains of other Dead Sea Scrols were also found – one to the south at Masada and perhaps as many as three at Wadi Murabbaat.” [See: The Dead Sea Scroll Bible, 3]

the text of genesis12
The Text of Genesis

4.2 ". . . the use of the term text-type has some legitimacy for the textual criticism of Genesis. when we apply terminology used by New Testament textual critics to our limited, but statistically significant, sampling we can isolate at least two text-types in Genesis. One is represented by  and the other by  and , 4QGena, 4QGenb, and possibly 4QGenj, 4QGene, and 4QGenf are very fragmentary, but their preserved text are closes to the later text-type." [Davila, “Text-Type and Terminology: Genesis and Exodus as Test Cases,” Revue de Qumran 16 (1993), 35-36]

the text of genesis14
The Text of Genesis

4.3 4QReworked Pentateuch: It lacks the first twenty chapters of Genesis and follows a basic SP textual style.

4.4 “The focus on Genesis in Jubilees and the Genesis Apocryphon, to the exclusion of almost the whole rest of the Pentateuch, is actually quite characteristic of Qumran biblical interpretation overall. Whatever the reason may be, it is the first book of the Pentateuch which attracts most of the attention of the Qumran interpreters, and beyond that, it is the first portions of Genesis which attract most of that attention.” [Bernstein, “Pentateuchal Interpretation at Qumran,” 137]

the text of genesis15
The Text of Genesis

4.5 “The first thing that strikes the eye in conjunction with the textual basis of Genesis in Qumran is that chs. 7-16 are absent from the manuscript tradition. . . . Chapters 20 and 21 are also absent, as are chs. 25 and 28 and 33, 38, 44, 46 and 50.” [F. H. Cryer, “Genesis in Qumran,” 105]

  • “. . . the Genesis manuscripts in Qumran seem to have the character of a very \'Israelite\' collection, as most references to foreign peoples or practices is lacking.” [Cryer, 108]
the text of genesis16
The Text of Genesis

5. Targumim

5.1 “. . . the synoptic material is not spread evenly across the five books of the Pentateuch. The largest number of expansions appears in Genesis, some 45% (65 of 145) of the total. Exodus, Numbers and Deuteronomy each have between 15% and 20% of the core material while Leviticus contains only 4%. Thus it is clear that bulk of the common material appears in Genesis.” [Flesher, 63]

theories concerning the structure of genesis
Theories Concerning the Structure of Genesis
  • Call Theory

“Genesis is structured around the same calls (a) Gen 1-11 concerns the affirmation that God calls the world into being to be his faithful world. (b) Gen 12-50 concerns the affirmation that God calls a special people to be faithfully his people.” [Brueggemann]

theories concerning the structure of genesis18
Theories Concerning the Structure of Genesis

Toledoth and the Structure of Genesis

1.1-2.4 Origins of the Cosmos

2.5-5.2 Origins of Humanity

5.3-6.9a Histories of Noah

6.9b-10.1 Histories of the sons of Noah

10.2-11.10a Histories of Shem

11.10b-11.27a Histories of Terah

theories concerning the structure of genesis19
Theories Concerning the Structure of Genesis

11.27b-25.12 Histories of Ishmael

25.13-25.12 Histories of Isaac

25.19b-36.1 Histories of Esau

36.2-36.9 Histories of Esau

36.10-37.2 Histories of Jacob

[Wiseman & Harrison]

theories concerning the structure of genesis20
Theories Concerning the Structure of Genesis

Kikawada & Quinn, Before Abraham Was

Prologue Primeval History 1.1-11.26

Transition Genealogy 11.27-32

Threat The Abraham Cycle 12.1-25.11

Transition Genealogy 25.12-18

Threat The Jacob Cycle 25.19-35.22b

theories concerning the structure of genesis21
Theories Concerning the Structure of Genesis

Transition Genealogy 35.22c-36.40

Threat The Joseph Cycle 37.1-46.7

Transition Genealogy 46.8-27

Resolution Settlement in Egypt 46.28-50.26

outlines of genesis
Outlines of Genesis
  • Brueggemann

1.1-11.29 THE SOVEREIGN CALL OF GOD (Eph 1.9-10): Will God bring his creation to the unity he intends?

11.3-25.18 THE EMBRACED CALL OF GOD (Heb 11.8,11,17,19): Will Abraham live faith?

25.19-36.43 THE CONFLICTED CALL OF GOD (1 Cor 1.27-29): Will the younger rule the older?

37.1-50.26 THE HIDDEN CALL OF GOD (Rom 8.28-30): Will the dreamer keep his dream?

outlines of genesis23
Outlines of Genesis
  • Wenham

1.1-2.3 Prologue

2.4-4.26 History of heaven and earth

5.1-6.8 Family History of Adam

6.9-9.26 Family History of Noah

10.1-11.9 Family History of Noah\'s sons

11.10-26 Family History of Shem

outlines of genesis24
Outlines of Genesis

11.27-25.11 Family History of Terah

25.12-18 Family History of Ishmael

25.19-35.29 Family History of Isaac

36.1-37.1 Family History of Esau

37.2-50.26 Family History of Jacob

kikawada quinn s atrahasis and gen 1 11 parallel outline
Kikawada & Quinn\'s Atrahasis and Gen 1-11 Parallel Outline

A. Creation (1.1-2.3)

Summary of work of God

Creation of man

B. First Threat (2.4-3.24)

Genealogy of heaven and earth

Adam and Eve

kikawada quinn s atrahasis and gen 1 11 parallel outline26
Kikawada & Quinn\'s Atrahasis and Gen 1-11 Parallel Outline

C. Second Threat (4.1-4.26)

Cain and Abel

1. Cain and Able, genealogy

2. Lamech\'s taunt (in genealogy)

D. Final Threat (5.1-9.29)

Genealogy

Noah\'s Flood, Salvation in ark

kikawada quinn s atrahasis and gen 1 11 parallel outline27
Kikawada & Quinn\'s Atrahasis and Gen 1-11 Parallel Outline

E. Resolution (10.1-11.32)

Genealogy

Tower of Babel and Dispersion Genealogy, Abram leaves Ur

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the primeval history
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Primeval History

A Creation, God’s Words to Adam (1.1-3.24)

B Adam’s Sons (4.1-16)

C Technological Development of Mankind (4.17-26)

D Ten Generations from Adam to Noah (5.1-32)

E Downfall: The Nephilim (6.1-8)

A’ Flood, God’s Words to Noah (6.9-9.17)

B’ Noah’s Sons (9.18-29)

C’ Ethnic Development of Mankind (10.1-32)

E’ Downfall: Tower of Babel (11.1-9)

D’ Ten Generations from Noah to Terah (11.10-26)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the abraham cycle
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Abraham Cycle

A Genealogy of Terah (11.27-32)

B Start of Abram’s Spiritual Odyssey (12.1-9)

C Sarai in foreign palace; ordeal ends in peace and success; Abram and Lot part (12.10-13.18)

D Abram comes to the rescue of Sodom and Lot (14.1-24)

E Covenant with Abram; Annunciation of Ishmael (15.1-16.16)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the abraham cycle30
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Abraham Cycle

E’ Covenant with Abraham; Annunciation of Isaac (17.1-18.15)

D’ Abraham comes to rescue of Sodom and Lot (18.16-19.38)

C’ Sarah in foreign palace; ordeal ends in peace and success; Abraham and Ishmael part (20.1-21.34)

B’ Climax of Abraham’s Spiritual Odyssey (22.1-19)

A’ Genealogy of Nahor (22.20-24)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the jacob cycle
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Jacob Cycle

A Oracle sought, struggle in childbirth, Jacob born (25.19-34)

B Interlude: Rebekah in foreign palace, pact with foreigners (26.1-34)

C Jacob fears Esau and flees (27.1-28.9)

D Messengers (28.10-22)

E Arrival at Haran (29.1-30)

F Jacob’s wives are fertile (29.31-30.24)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the jacob cycle32
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Jacob Cycle

F’  Jacob’s flocks are fertile (30.25-43)

E’ Flight from Haran (31.1-54)

D’ Messengers (32.1-32)

C’ Jacob returns and fears Esau (33.1-20)

B’ Interlude: Dinah in foreign palace, pact with foreigners (34.1-31)

A’ Oracle fulfilled, struggle in childbirth, Jacob becomes Israel (35.1-22)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the linking material
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Linking Material

A  Death and Burial of Sarah (23.1-20)

B  Marriage of Isaac (24.1-67)

C  Abraham’s sons (25.1-6)

D  Death and burial of Abraham (25.7-11)

E  Ishmael’s sons (25.12-18)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the linking material34
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Linking Material

A’ ----

C’ Jacob’s sons (35.23-26)

D’ Death and burial of Isaac (35.27-29)

B’ Marriages of Esau (36.1-5)

E’ Esau’s sons (36.6-43)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the joseph story
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Joseph Story

A Joseph and his brothers, Jacob and Joseph part (37.1-36)

B Interlude: Joseph not present (38.1-30)

C Reversal: Joseph guilty, Potiphar’s wife innocent (39.1-23)

D Joseph hero of Egypt (40.1-41.57)

E Two trips to Egypt (42.1-43.34)

F Final test (44.1-34)

gary a rendsburg the redaction of genesis the joseph story36
Gary A.Rendsburg, The Redaction of Genesis: The Joseph Story

F’ Conclusion of Test (45.1-28)

E’ Two tellings of migration to Egypt (46.1-47.12)

D’ Joseph here of Egypt (47.13-27)

C’ Reversal: Ephraim firstborn, Manasseh second-born (47.28-48.22)

B’ Interlude: Joseph nominally present (49.1-28)

A’ Joseph and his brothers, Jacob and Joseph part (49.29-50.26)

the purpose of the book of genesis
The Purpose of the Book of Genesis
  • "The function of Genesis as a book of the Bible is to take those who read it and those who hear its message to the things of the beginning.” [Westermann]
the purpose of genesis 1 11
The Purpose of Genesis 1-11

“Von Rad understands the purpose of these chapters to have been first determined by the Yahwist, who portrayed a history of increasing alienation from God. Starting with the expulsion from the Garden of Eden, sin expanded and grew, resulting in the murder of Abel, the illicit marriage of the angels and the flood. This history of sin reached its climax in the Tower of Babel which threatened to return the creation into a chaos. The key to von Rad\'s Heilsgeschichtliche interpretation lies in the call of Abraham (12.1-3).” [Childs, IOTS, 154]

the purpose of genesis 1 1139
The Purpose of Genesis 1-11
  • “The key to von Rad\'s Heilsgeschichtliche interpretation lies in the call of Abraham (12.1-3). The election of Israel provides the perspective from which this universal history of divine judgment and mercy toward human sinfulness is viewed in Genesis. It provides the major theological Genesis by linking Israel\'s redemptive history to world history.” [Childs, IOTS, 154]
the purpose of genesis 1 1140
The Purpose of Genesis 1-11

"Westermann...does not believe that Gen 1-11 should be subordinated to the patriarchal traditions of chs 12ff. but sharply distinguished in order to do justice to the integrity of the primeval history. Westermann stresses that these chapters do not move on the horizontal plane of history, but rather portray a vertical God-man dimension. They treat the universal reality of human existence which is not tied to a specific time or culture.” [Childs, IOTS, 154-155]

the purpose of genesis 1 1141
The Purpose of Genesis 1-11

“Further, he makes the significant point that the biblical writers of chs. 1-11 have adopted texts which arose in the world outside of Israel and do not stem from the experience of Israel with Yahweh. He connect the theory that a growth of sin is intended, but argues for seeing only a portrayal of the variety and scope of the alienation. Finally, Westermann claims that the purpose of chs. 1-3 is not to portray a primeval age of innocence - there is no "fall" for Westermann - but rather to deal with the issue of human existence in its frailty and limitation." [Childs, IOTS, 154-155]

the purpose of genesis 12 36
The Purpose of Genesis 12-36
  • Promises
    • Land, Children, Relationship with God and Blessing
    • The God of the Fathers (Siteless, Personal, The One Who Blesses)
  • Genealogy
    • Genealogies are used in antiquity to legitimize royal dynasties and political claims of others. Here the genealogies focus on the birth of children that become carriers of the promise.
the purpose of genesis 37 50
The Purpose of Genesis 37-50
  • The Joseph Narratives function as a literary device to line the ancestral promises to the Exodus Narratives [See: George Coats, From Canaan to Egypt and Martin Noth, The Pentateuchal Traditions]
  • G. von Rad – a literary unit written in the Solomonic period, (10th CE) to teach about the “hidden rule of God” in the lives of people and nations.
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