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Chapter 10: The Changing Nature of PE & Sport. Today’s class focus is on physical education in the schools of Texas. THE “OLD” PE. required uniforms exercise in straight lines running laps for punishment choosing sides to play traditional games little or no organized teaching.

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Chapter 10:

The Changing

Nature of PE & Sport


Today’s class

focus is on

physical education in the schools of Texas.

the old pe
  • required uniforms
  • exercise in straight lines
  • running laps for punishment
  • choosing sides to play traditional games
  • little or no organized teaching
the new pe
  • casual dress code
  • learning stations
  • success for all ability levels
  • innovative games and programs
    • Yoga
    • Rock Climbing
    • Martial arts
    • Frisbee

“Physical miseducation

is a dragon that rears its ugly head for various reasons, and it is extremely

tough to slay.”

Pangrazi & Darst

what is physical education
What is PhysicalEducation?

Who remembers the definition?

PHYSICAL EDUCATION is an integral partof the total education processand has as its aims the development of:



socially &

emotionally fit citizens

through the medium of physical activities that have been selected and planned to achieve specific outcomes.

physical education derives from play
Physical Education derives from play
  • and in its mature form is institutionalized in culture as sport and dance.
naspe identified five major areas of pe outcomes
NASPE identified five major areas of PE outcomes
  • Motor Skills and Movement Competence
  • Health-Related Physical Fitness & Wellness
  • Human Performance Principles
  • Social Skills and Positive Self-Concept
  • Lifetime Participation
motor skills competence
Motor Skills & Competence
  • Components of motor skills:
      • fundamental skills--locomotor, nonlocomotor, manipulative
      • rhythmic
      • specialized for sport/games
health related physical fitness wellness
Health-Related Physical Fitness & Wellness
  • Opportunity to develop and maintain personal health through physical activity and fitness
    • body comp, cr endurance, flexibility, muscle strength & muscle endurance
    • activities included in each class
    • positive experiences
    • understand how to maintain wellness throughout life
human performance
Human Performance
  • experience in a broad variety of activities, leading to increased enjoyment & participation
  • select activities for safety
social skills and positive self concept
Social Skills and Positive Self-Concept
  • participation
  • cooperation
  • competition
  • tolerance
  • positive feedback
lifetime participation
Lifetime Participation

The ultimate measure of success is the number of students who participate in physical activities such as exercise, sport, dance, and outdoor adventure activities through their lives.

issues affecting pe
State/local requirements

coeducational classes

students w/ disabilities

community facilities

private sports instruction

Independent study

Fitness vs. skill development

equipment, facilities, class size

legal liability

coaching conflicts

Issues Affecting PE



successful programs have
Successful programs have..
  • Positive environments
  • student options
  • wide variety of activities
  • lifetime sports
successful programs have18
Successful programs have..
  • outdoor ed
  • health-related fitness
  • in-depth, progressive instruction
  • new team sports
the teks determine what will be taught in texas public school classes
The TEKs determine what will be taught in Texas public school classes.
  • are arranged by subject.
  • went into effect in 1998-99.
  • run through all the applicable grades. (PE is K-12)
  • are used in measuring school success.
basic understandings
  • The entire sequence and scope for the curriculum in K-12 physical education is based on two basic principles.
  • The basic understandings relate to movement competency and meaningful physical activity.
movement knowledge skills

provide for…

  • enjoyment
  • continued skill development
  • increased access to a physically active lifestyle
daily meaningful physical activity and healthful behaviors

are factors in…

  • promotion of health
  • prevention and reduction of disease
k s for each elementary grade level included references to three areas
K&S for each elementary grade level included references to three areas...
  • Movement
  • Physical Activity & Health
  • Social Development
kindergarten teks include
Kindergarten TEKS include...
  • Movement
    • travel in different ways without bumping into others
    • maintain balance while bearing weight on a variety of body parts
    • walk forward & sideways the length of a beam without falling
kindergarten teks include27
Kindergarten TEKS include
  • Physical Activity & Health
    • participate in appropriate exercises for flexibility in shoulders, legs, and trunk
    • locate the lungs and explain their purpose
    • use equipment and space properly
kindergarten teks include28
Kindergarten TEKS include
  • Social Development
    • follow rules, procedures and safe practices
    • work in a group setting in cooperation with others
    • respond appropriately to starting and stopping signals
1st grade teks include
1st Grade TEKS include
  • Movement
    • demonstrate proper foot patterns in hopping, jumping, skipping, leaping, galloping, and sliding.
    • clap in time to a simple rhythmic beat
    • recognize that motor skill development requires correct practice
1st grade teks include30
1st Grade TEKS include
  • Social Development
    • explain boundaries and rules for simple games
    • interact, cooperate and respect others
    • resolve conflicts in socially acceptable ways such as talking and asking the teacher for help
2nd grade teks include
2nd Grade TEKS include
  • Movement
    • travel independently in a large group while safely changing direction
    • recognize that attention to the feeling of movement is important in motor skill development
2nd grade teks include32
2nd grade TEKS include
  • Physical Activity & Health
    • identify how regular physical activity strengthens the heart, lungs, and muscular system
    • participate in moderate to vigorous physical activities on a daily basis that cause in creased heart rate, breathing rate and perspiration
2nd grade teks include33
2nd grade TEKS include
  • Social Development
    • display good sportsmanship
    • identify strategies in simple games and activities such as dodging to avoid being tagged.
    • treat others with respect during play
3rd grade teks include
3rd Grade TEKS include
  • Movement
    • demonstrate key elements in manipulative skills such as underhand throw, overhand throw, catch and kick such as position your side to the target.
3rd grade teks include35
3rd Grade TEKS include
  • Physical Activity & Health
    • distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic
    • select and use proper attire that promotes participation and prevents injury
4th grade teks include
4th Grade TEKS include
  • Physical Activity & Health
    • name the components of health-related fitness such as strength, endurance, and flexibility.
4th grade teks include37
4th Grade TEKS include
  • Social Development
    • respond to winning and losing with dignity and understanding
    • work independently and stay on task
5th grade teks include
5th Grade TEKS include
  • Movement
    • demonstrate controlled balance on balance board, stilts, scooters, and skates
    • perform selected folk dances
5th grade teks include39
5th Grade TEKS include
  • Physical Activity & Health
    • common skeletal problems and their effect on the body such as spinal curvatures
    • describe how movement and coordination are effected by alcohol and other drugs
5th grade teks include40
5th Grade TEKS include
  • Social Development
    • describe fundamental strategies in net/wall, invasion, target, and fielding games
the pe curriculum continues with teks for
The PE curriculum continues with TEKS for...
  • Middle School, grade 6
  • Middle School, grade 7
  • Middle School, grade 8
  • High School courses
grades 6 7 8 have the same seven basic teks topics for middle junior high physical education
Grades 6,7,8 have the same seven basic TEKS topics* forMiddle/Junior HighPhysical Education.

*but the sub-areas differ through the grade levels.

competency in fundamental movement patterns
  • applies movement concepts to settings.
  • understands basic components of structured physical activities
  • exhibits physically active lifestyle
  • knows benefits from involvement
  • applies safety practices
  • develops self-management and social skills
  • Each grade has many sub-areas...2-12 of them!
  • Sub-areas differ from grade to grade.
  • A teacher would have to plan carefully to teach all the TEKS!
imagine just one area of physical education
Imagine just one area of Physical Education...
  • Rhythms!
  • Are there Rhythmical activities for Secondary School PE identified by the TEKS?
  • Yes!
for example in the area of competency in fundamental movement patterns
For example:In the area of competency in fundamental movement patterns:
  • 6th grade: “uses locomotor skills in dynamic fitness, sport and rhythmic activities”
  • 7th & 8th grade mentions performing folk, country, & aerobic dances
could archery be in the middle school pe curriculum
Could archery be in the middle school PE curriculum?
  • Sure!
  • Many of the TEKs relate specifically to skills learned in archery.
  • The 7th and 8th grade movement concepts could really be taught using archery!
could indoor soccer be in the middle school pe curriculum
Could indoor soccer be in the middle school PE curriculum?
  • You bet.
  • All three grades stress modified activities.
  • 7th & 8th grade stress games involving invasion, targets, and fielding!
who decides what units to teach in middle school pe
Who decides what units to teach in middle school PE?
  • Some school districts have prepared curriculum guides.
  • The teacher usually has the most control.
  • Adolescent needs dictate variety so that all can find success.
  • Balance between team, individual activities.
  • Health-related fitness is a must!
what about pe in the high schools
What about PE in the high schools?

There are five specific semester-credit courses that may be taught.

  • Foundations of Personal Fitness (taken first)
  • Aerobic Activities
  • Adventure/Outdoor Education
  • Individual Sports
  • Team Sports
teks foundations of personal fitness
TEKS: Foundations of Personal Fitness
  • Application of principles to improve health-related fitness
  • Self-management and social skills
  • Safety practices
  • Application of personal fitness program
  • Comprehension of HR-fitness information
fpf has a textbook
FPF has a textbook!
  • The State Board of Education approved 4 text as choices.
  • Each district can select one to use.
  • All four of the books are designed to meet TEKs.
teks adventure education
TEKS: Adventure Education

Relate to performance in such activities as...

  • backpacking
  • camping
  • hiking
  • orienteering
  • water sports
teks aerobic activities
TEKS: Aerobic Activities

Relate to activities such as:

  • Power walking
  • Recreation dance
  • Aerobic dance
  • Step aerobics
  • Water aerobics
  • Cycling
  • Jogging
teks individual sports
TEKS: Individual Sports
  • Table Tennis
  • Self-Defense
  • Golf
  • Bicycling
  • Weight Training
  • Tennis
  • Gymnastics
  • Archery
  • Badminton
teks team sports
TEKS: Team Sports
  • Samples listed include: flag football, floor hockey, soccer, softball, volleyball.
  • Emphasis includes relationship to achievement of health-related goals.
there are no texts for these other high school pe classes
There are no texts for these other high school PE classes!
  • There may be specific district curriculum guides.
  • The teacher is usually the most significant factor in deciding what activities will be taught within the high school course.
why follow the teks
Why follow the TEKS?
  • To provide a developmentally-appropriate curriculum for your students.
  • To insure sequential learning throughout the grades.
  • To meet the standards for school accreditation by the state of Texas.
do you agree
Do you agree?
  • PE curriculum has an obvious scope & sequence based on goals that are appropriate for all children.
do you agree61
Do you agree?
  • Fitness assessment should be a part of ongoing process of improving well-being.
do you agree62
Do you agree?
  • Students should be prepared for each component of a physical test and results shared privately & with parents.
do you agree63
Do you agree?
  • Class teams should be formed in ways that preserve dignity.
do you agree64
Do you agree?
  • Enough equipment should be available so that each child benefits from maximum participation.
do you agree65
Do you agree?
  • Equipment should be matched to the size, confidence and skill level of the student.
do you agree66
Do you agree?
  • The physical educator needs to be an advocate for our subject matter within the context of the school and to provide a model of involvement and a healthy life-style.
the risk of injury in pe sport necessitates that leaders comply with their responsibilities

The risk of injury in PE/Sport necessitates that leaders comply with their responsibilities.


Many people today are seeking legal redress for real or perceived mistreatment.

negligence is most frequent claim
Negligence is most frequent claim.
  • Occurs by omission or commission
  • anytime a person fails to act as a “reasonable and prudent person”
negligence exists when71
Negligence exists when...
  • There is a breach of that duty.
negligence exists when72
Negligence exists when...
  • The breach was the proximate cause of the injury.
negligence exists when73
Negligence exists when...
  • The injuries are substantial in nature.
common legal defenses against negligence75
Common Legal Defensesagainst Negligence
  • Contributory or comparative negligence
    • Plaintiff had behaviors that contributed to the injury.
    • Comparative apportions damages between plaintiff and defendant.

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Follow school, employer and state guidelines.
  • Distribute safety procedure statement to director/parents

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Establish emergency care procedures
  • Establish procedures of injury reporting/treatment.

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Carry liability insurance with broad coverage.

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Purchase the best equipment that budget will allow.
  • Check facilities and record actions.

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Follow methodology of skill-progression.

Strategies to avoid

negligence charges

  • Learn and utilize the best instructional techniques.
  • Closely supervise all activities.