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Basic Social Statistics
- descriptive v.s. influential statistics
- null and alternative hypotheses
- test statistics (sampling distributions)
- type 1 and type 2 errors
to describe or summarize the data of a sample
to make generalizations about a population using a sample
eg: GSS —> the American Population
(We take it at lots of different times and places.)
Usually if the sample is truly random, it will also be representative.
1. create your hypotheses
2. random sampling
3. make statistical tests
4. draw the conclusion (reject or accept your hypothesis. )
the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis should be mutually exclusive.