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Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D.
Vice President R&D Asia Pacific
Skin plays an essential role both in the aesthetic and health field.
The skin is the outer most layer of the body. It is constituted of 2 layers :
which sit on the fat layer around the muscles.
The stratum corneum made essentially of dead cells is exfoliating.
The space between the cells constitutes the intercellular cement.
The dermis is where the collagen and elastin fibers are. These fibers are responsible for the skin structure and elasticity.
They are degraded by enzymes called collagenase and elastase which belong to the class of “Matrix Metallo Proteases” or MMP.
Normal hair follicle where sebum empties onto skin surface
through follicle openingOil Production
Whiteheadsor closed comedones
Products applied on the skin, hair, teeth or teguments in order to :
older technique, often comedogenic
At low concentration (< 2 % ) AHA are moisturizing agents by creating hydrogen bonds between the protein chains.
The most common are :
Two types of filters are used :
secondary sexual characters gradually
become manifest as the reproductive
system develops to full capacity and
there is rapid somatic growth.
→ puberty makes this ideal image virtually impossible to achieve
unit, occurs in both sexes but is more
distressing to the women, not only
because of the cosmetic effect but
because of the frequent permanent
Normal hair follicle adolescence where sebum empties onto skin surface
through follicle openingACNE
Increases sebum secretion adolescence
The cause of acne (1)
The effect of Androgen hormones
The cause of acne (2) adolescence
The effect of Propionobacterium acnes
Free fatty acids
Ingredients usually used to reduce shine :
These ingredients will increase oil production
Ingredients used to control oil secretion:
Efficacy is measured by :
Pigmentation Formation Mechanism adolescence
Ingredients used to decrease pigmentation :
Except for Hydroquinone, the skin lightening effect is only visible after several weeks.