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SKIN CARE. TRAINING Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D. Vice President R&D Asia Pacific . TRAINING CONTENT. Skin physiology Cosmetic functions: mechanism ingredients used performance assessment. Skin.

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Skin care l.jpg

SKIN CARE

TRAINING

Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D.

Vice President R&D Asia Pacific


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TRAINING CONTENT

  • Skin physiology

  • Cosmetic functions:

    • mechanism

    • ingredients used

    • performance assessment


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Skin

  • Is the external barrier of the body, both physical and immunological

  • Is the mirror of the state of health of the body

    Skin plays an essential role both in the aesthetic and health field.


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SKIN PHYSIOLOGY

The skin is the outer most layer of the body. It is constituted of 2 layers :

  • epidermis

  • dermis

    which sit on the fat layer around the muscles.


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EPIDERMIS

The stratum corneum made essentially of dead cells is exfoliating.

The space between the cells constitutes the intercellular cement.


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DERMIS

The dermis is where the collagen and elastin fibers are. These fibers are responsible for the skin structure and elasticity.

They are degraded by enzymes called collagenase and elastase which belong to the class of “Matrix Metallo Proteases” or MMP.


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OIL PRODUCTION

  • Oil is produced in the sebaceous gland , production is stimulated by hormones

  • Oil flows into the hair follicle then onto the skin surface


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Normal hair follicle where sebum empties onto skin surface

through follicle opening

Oil Production


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COMEDONES

  • Whiteheads are closed comedones. The obstructed follicle prevents oil flow and provides an oil reservoir for bacterial growth. They lead to inflammation

  • Blackheads are open comedones (follicle obstruction). The color is melanin and oxidized lipids, not dirt. The content is firm and dilates the follicle, blackheads are not inflammatory


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COMEDONES

Whiteheadsor closed comedones

  • stays beneath the skin. Slightly raised, light

    coloured lesion

  • Caused by build up of debris ( cells + sebum) within follicle

  • Blackheads oropen comedones

  • a whitehead becomes a blackhead when

  • it enlarges until a dark plug protrudes through the skin surface

  • * Both whiteheads and blackheads may stay on the skin for a long time.

  • * Whiteheads and Blackheads are non-inflammatory



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UVB DAMAGE

  • UVB impact on DNA in the cell creating damages which may lead to cancer

  • P53 gene codes for a protein that allows repair of the DNA or kill the cell if repair is not possible: “sunburn cells”


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UVA DAMAGE

  • UVA acts through an oxidative stress, forming free radicals (reactive oxygen species) that will damage the DNA

  • Reactive oxygen species create damages leading to cancer

  • Pigment production is the defense mechanism


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TRAINING CONTENT

  • Skin physiology

  • Cosmetic functions:

    • mechanism

    • ingredients used

    • performance assessment


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COSMETICS

DEFINITION :

Products applied on the skin, hair, teeth or teguments in order to :

  • beautify

  • perfume

  • cleanse

  • promote attractiveness

  • alter the appearance


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COSMETICS : FUNCTIONS

  • Cleansing

  • Moisturizing

  • UV protection

  • Aging - Wrinkle

  • Acne & Oily skin

  • Pigmentation


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CLEANSING

  • Soap : high pH, low rinsability, high irritation

    • Some soap have high rinsability, low irritation

  • Cream cleanser / Facial wash :

    • rinse off : detergent-based, neutral pH, irritation depends on detergent type and concentration

    • tissue off : leave on, emulsion-based, less “fresh clean feel“


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RINSABILITY

  • Measured by Fourrier Transform Infra Red or FTIR : scanning of the skin before application and after rinsing of a cleanser. The difference is representative of the quantity of product left on the skin.

  • Digital imaging with proper light allows also to evaluate rinsability


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IRRITATION

  • Patch test

  • Chromameter (red color)

  • Trans epidermal water loss : TEWL


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CLEANSER FORMULA

  • A typical cleanser formula consists of :

    • detergent 10 - 15 %

    • foam booster 0 - 2%

    • preservative < 1 %

    • fragrance 0 - 1%

    • water Qs 100 %


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CLEANSER FORMULA

  • Surfactants : usually combinations are used to enhance lathering and reduce irritation. SLS is to be avoided, it strips the skin of its lipids contributing to irritation.

  • Preservatives : allergy potential of formaldehyde donors.

  • Fragrance : known allergens (like Peru Balsam or MuskAmbrette) have been banned. It is important for the fragrance to meet IFRA guidelines


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MOISTURIZING

  • Water, like air or light, is essential to life

  • Moisturization is a woman’s main expectation from a cosmetic product

  • Dermatologists face dry skin condition every day : physiological, pathological (ichthyosis), therapeutic (PUVA, retinoids)


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WHERE IS THE WATER ?

  • 50% is intracellular

  • 15% is extracellular

  • 5% is plasmatic

  • 30% is in the sweat glands


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MECHANISMS OF REGULATION

  • Hydration through deeper layers

  • Loss through evaporation

  • Moisture retaining ability of the stratum corneum, dependent on :

    • Hydro Lipido Proteic film (HLP)

    • Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)

    • integrity of intercellular cement


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HLP FILM

  • Originates from sebum and sweat secretions

  • Composed of :

    • water - triglycerides

    • ions - cholesterol free & esterified

    • amino acids - squalene

    • urea - fatty acids

      - waxes


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NMF

  • Amino acids

  • Urocanic acid

  • Pyrollidone carboxylic acid : PCA

  • Electrolytes

  • Sugars


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INTERCELLULAR CEMENT

  • Ceramides ( sphingolipides )

  • Fatty acids ( Linoleic acid )

  • Cholesterol ( free & esters )


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MOISTURIZING INGREDIENTS

  • Occlusive agents

  • Structural lipids

  • Hydrophilic film forming agents

  • Humectants

  • NMF

  • AHA


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OCCLUSIVE AGENTS

  • Vaseline, paraffin

  • Waxes of animal or plant origin

  • Some silicone oils or waxes

  • Some vegetable oil (sweet almond)

  • Some fatty esters (isopropyl myristate)

  • Fatty alcohols

    older technique, often comedogenic


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STRUCTURAL LIPIDS

  • Essential Fatty Acids (EFA : linoleic, linolenic acids)

  • Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA : EPA, DHA)

  • Ceramides or pseudo ceramides

  • Cholesterol


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HYDROPHILIC FILM FORMING AGENTS

  • GAG : glycosaminoglycans like Hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfates

  • Collagen

  • Proteins

  • Chitin or Chitosan


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HUMECTANTS

  • Glycerin

  • Propylene Glycol or Butylene Glycol

  • Sugars


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NMF

  • PCA

  • Urea (below 10 %)

  • Amino Acids or hydrolyzed protein


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AHA

At low concentration (< 2 % ) AHA are moisturizing agents by creating hydrogen bonds between the protein chains.

The most common are :

  • glycolic acid

  • lactic acid

  • citric acid

  • malic acid


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PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

  • FTIR :the ratio of amide I to amide II peaks is function of the skin hydration

  • NMR : nuclear magnetic resonance

  • TEWL : trans epidermal water loss

  • Capacitance (Corneometer®)

  • Conductance (Skicon®)


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FORMULATION

  • Typically they are oil in water emulsions :

    • water

    • propylene glycol : penetration enhancer it becomes irritating above 5%

    • humectants, film forming agents, AHA, NMF

    • emulsifiers : could contribute to irritation, concentration to be kept to a minimum

    • oils, fatty esters : some are comedogenic


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UV PROTECTION

Two types of filters are used :

  • chemical

  • mineral



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CHEMICAL FILTERS

  • Limited spectrum, highly regulated

  • Most common filters :

    • cinnamates (UVB)

    • PABA (UVB)

    • Oxybenzone (UVA)

    • Avobenzone (UVA)


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MINERAL FILTERS

  • Broad spectrum, filtering capacity function of size, influence on product texture

  • Most common filters :

    • TiO2

    • ZnO


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PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT

  • SPF measurement in vivo : it is the ratio of the minimum erythemal dose with and without protection ( relates only to UVB protection )

  • in vitro measurements :

    • Diffey method

    • spectrophotometric absorption method


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AGING : INTRINSIC

  • Program theory : each cell contains a clock which control the number of multiplication

  • Error theory : occurrence of errors in the replication which eventually lead to cell death

  • Control theory : cells function is remotely controlled by secretions ( hormones )


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AGING : EXTRINSIC

  • Sun : UVA / UVB / IR

  • Psycho social factors : overwork, stress

  • Dietary factors : insufficient water supply, vitamin deficiency, alcohol, smoking

  • Iatrogenic factors : corticosteroids, ionizing radiation, diuretics

  • Pathological factors : genodermatose, acrogenia

  • Hormonal factor : menopause


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MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING

  • Epidermis :

    • reduction in cell renewal rate

    • thickening of stratum corneum

    • decrease in barrier efficiency : increase in TEWL and hyperkeratosis

    • ridges are flattened out and intercellular spaces enlarged

    • pigmentation problems : actinic lentigines

    • decrease in skin immune system


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MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING

  • Sebaceous glands :

    • reduction in sebum secretion (hormones influenced)

  • Sweat glands :

    • less active

  • HLP film :

    • thinning of film means less protective barrier


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MANIFESTATION OF SKIN AGING

  • Dermis :

    • destruction of collagen and elastin fibers network

    • proteoglycans and glycoproteins are reduced

    • increase in elastin synthesis : elastosis


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WRINKLES

  • Expression lines :

    • they are the first manifestation

    • due to constant creasing of the face

    • accentuated by environmental factors

    • they appear around the eyes (crow’s feet), the nose and mouth (naso-labial fold), forehead (frown lines)


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WRINKLES

  • Gravity lines :

    • skin and muscle structure become slack and droops downwards

    • subcutaneous tissues tend to sag

    • flabby cheeks, double chin, bags under the eyes and drooping eyelids


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WRINKLES

  • Elastosis wrinkles :

    • due to UV radiation, the epidermis is injured (free radicals), the fibroblasts in the dermis are over-active and abnormal deposits of elastin occur


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ANTI AGING : PREVENTION

  • Protective agents :

    • sun protection

    • anti free radicals : SOD, Se, Si, Vit. E, Vit. C, carotenoids, flavonoids, -orizanol

  • Nourishing agents

    • vitamins : A (esters), B5 (panthenol), C, E, EFA (linoleic & linolenic acids), PUFA


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ANTI AGE : PREVENTION

  • Moisturizing agents

  • Metabolism activators :

    • unsaponifiable lipids (phytosterols)

    • plant extracts (Centella asiatica, Ginseng)

    • microalgae extracts

    • Bacteria, fungal or yeast extracts


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ANTI AGING : PREVENTION

  • Conditioning agents :

    • anti MMP (elastase, collagenase)

    • hyaluronic acid

    • collagen, elastin (hydrolyzed)

    • nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)


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ANTI AGING : REPARATION

  • Retinol : transformed into the skin in retinoic acid, it has its positive properties without the irritation

  • AHA’s work by reducing the corneocytes cohesion, increasing desquamation (cell renewal), hydration and plasticity

  • Vitamin C

  • micro circulation activators : plant extracts


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PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

  • Cutaneous relief :

    • imprint techniques : micro depressionary network, profilometry

    • macrophotography : visible, UV light

    • confocal microscopy

    • biopsy

  • Cell renewal :

    • use of a dye : danzyl chloride or dihydroxy acetone (DHA)


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PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT

  • Alternative methods :

    • used to determine the activity of ingredients on molecules, cell cultures or skin replica

  • Physiological parameters :

    • hydration

    • elasticity : cutometry, twistometry, balistometry

    • pigmentation : photography, chromameter

    • vascularisation : Laser Doppler Velocimetry



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ACNE

  • 95% of the population is affected at one time or another by ACNE

  • ACNE affects 85% of the teenagers:

    • 10% require medical attention: severe acne with 1% difficult to treat

    • 90% have mild acne or cosmetic acne


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  • Puberty : period over which the

    secondary sexual characters gradually

    become manifest as the reproductive

    system develops to full capacity and

    there is rapid somatic growth.


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Onset of puberty in girls

  • Breast development following the increase of estrogen from the ovaries

  • Menstruation


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Puberty and Adolescence

  • Adolescence is a difficult period for most people: period of changes

  • Herd bonding & sexual involvement

  • Adolescence is a particularly bad time to have skin problems, especially on the face or on the extremities


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Physiological changes in the skin during puberty and adolescence

  • Increase in sebum production: oily skin and hair

  • Onset of "body odor"

  • Anguish in young men when male-pattern balding begins in the teenage years


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Ideal skin for girls adolescence

  • Skin should be oil-free with no pimples or spots

  • Plenty of hair on head, but none on face, under the arms or on the legs

    → puberty makes this ideal image virtually impossible to achieve



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  • Acne adolescence: a disorder of the pilosebaceous

    unit, occurs in both sexes but is more

    distressing to the women, not only

    because of the cosmetic effect but

    because of the frequent permanent

    scarring


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Normal hair follicle adolescence where sebum empties onto skin surface

through follicle opening

ACNE


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Classification of acne adolescence

  • Non-inflammatory lesions: open & closed comedones

  • Inflammatory lesions: papules, pustules, nodules, cysts


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Pathogenesis of acne adolescence

  • Sebaceous glands hyper-activity

  • Pilosebaceous duct obstruction

  • Bacterial colonization and inflammation


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Increases sebum secretion adolescence

Hyperkeratinization

The cause of acne (1)

The effect of Androgen hormones

I’m Androgen


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The cause of acne (2) adolescence

The effect of Propionobacterium acnes

We love

sebum

Hydrolyzes sebum

Free fatty acids

Inflammatory acne


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ACNE TREATMENT adolescence

  • Drugs

  • Dermatological Procedures

  • Cosmetics

    and/or

  • Squeeze the pimple


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DERMATOLOGICAL PROCEDURE adolescence

  • Peeling with drying and keratolytic agents : sulfur, salicylic acid, resorcinol, benzoyl peroxide


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COSMETICS adolescence

  • Traditionally the anti-acne approach has used drying keratolytic ingredients:

    • Benzoyl peroxide (5 or 10%)

    • Salicylic acid (0.5 or 2%)

    • Sulfur (~2%)


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OILY SKIN adolescence

Ingredients usually used to reduce shine :

  • clay (bentonite)

  • talc

  • Kaolin

    These ingredients will increase oil production

    Ingredients used to control oil secretion:

  • Soy/Wheat protein

  • Cedarwood


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OILY SKIN adolescence

Efficacy is measured by :

  • Sebumeter® : measure of the absorbance of a tape

  • Sebutape®

  • removal of lipids and determination of quantity


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PIGMENTATION adolescence

  • Melanins are the result of the transformation of Tyrosine into DOPA then Dopaquinone by Tyrosinase in the melanocyte.

  • Melanins are transferred from the melanocyte to the keratinocyte layers


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Pigmentation Formation Mechanism adolescence

UV

1

  • Variety of Causes

  • Variety of Responses

2

Irritation

Inflammatory Response

KERATINOCYTE

(Epidermis)

3

Hormone

MELANOCYTE

(Basal Layer)

Melanin

Tyrosine

Melanosome

FIBROBLAST

Tyrosinase

Dermis


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PIGMENTATION adolescence

Ingredients used to decrease pigmentation :

  • hydroquinone : effective but not safe

  • ascorbic acid derivatives

  • plant extracts : Kojic acid, arbutin, Licorice, Centella, Bayberry extract

    Except for Hydroquinone, the skin lightening effect is only visible after several weeks.


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PIGMENTATION adolescence

  • Efficacy is measured by :

    • Chromameter® : L measure

    • Mexameter® : evaluation of melanin and redness

    • Photography : visible, UV with data analysis


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THANK YOU adolescence


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