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Runway Incursion Causal Analysis

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Section 3. Runway Incursion Causal Analysis . Genesis of a Incursion. A safety hazard/ runway incursion is likely to occur when the exact location of an aircraft or vehicle on the airport surface in relation to a specific ATC clearance is unknown.

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slide1

Section 3

Runway Incursion Causal Analysis

slide2

Genesis of a Incursion

A safety hazard/ runway incursion is likely to occur when the exact location of an aircraft or vehicle on the airport surface in relation to a specific ATC clearance is unknown.

PILOTS and VEHICLE OPERATORS must taxi and maneuver their aircraft/vehicles on taxiways and runways in accordance with ATC instructions.

CONTROLLERS must monitor the location and progression of the aircraft and vehicles operating on the airport surface, in accordance with instructions issued, to provide separation assurance.

slide3

Runway Incursion Causal Categories

OPERATIONAL ERROR (OE)- A human error caused by a tower controller. There are over 8000 tower controllers in the U.S.

PILOT DEVIATION (PD) - A human error caused by a pilot. There are over 675,000 licensed pilots in the U.S.

VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN DEVIATION (V/PD) - A human error caused by a vehicle operator or pedestrian which results in an entry onto the movement area that has not been authorized by ATC.

slide4

V/PD

OE/D

21%

23%

PD

56%

Runway Incursion History

Comparison by Error Distribution

(data as of July 2002)

Vehicle/Pedestrian

Deviation

Operational Error

Pilot Deviation

- Office of Runway Safety

slide5

Operational Error (OE)

CONTROLLERS are at risk of being a party to an incursion when they are unable to correlate their visual observations of the aircraft/vehicle location with previously issued ATC instructions.

Some contributing factors include:

-FAILURE TO FOLLOW ESTABLISHED STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES

-FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THEIR ACTIONS OR INACTIONS

-LACK OF TRAINING & PRACTICE TO INTERNALIZE PROCEDURES

-LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

primary performance factors of operational error runway incursions 1997 2001
Primary Performance Factors of Operational Error Runway Incursions (1997-2001)

There were 430 Operational Error Runway Incursions 398 of these Operational Errors were analyzed

  • 186 loss of arrival/departure separation on same/intersecting runways

55 involved a simultaneous runway crossing with an aircraft landing or departing with coordination

primary performance factors of operational error runway incursions continued
Primary Performance Factors of Operational Error Runway Incursions (Continued)

54 other operational errors included: mistaking the location of aircraft or vehicle on/near runway, clearing aircraft to land/depart from closed runway, and errors involving taxi into position and hold (TIPH).

  • 52 simultaneous runway crossings with an aircraft landing or departing with lack of coordination

51 “hear back/read back” involving entries or crossings

primary performance factors of operational error runway incursions 1997 20011

200

186

180

158

160

140

51

120

100

52

80

60

40

55

20

0

Primary Performance Factors of Operational Error Runway Incursions (1997-2001)

Loss of Separation on the Runway

Crossing

“Read Back/ Hear Back”

Lack of Coordination between Ground and Local with Crossing

Simultaneous Runway Crossing with Arrival and Departure

Other OEs included mistaken traffic location, usage of closed runway, and misuse of TIPH clearance.

slide9

50

45

40

35

30

Percentage

25

20

15

10

5

0

Lost Situational

Improper Procedures

Poor Judgement

Faulty Crew

Poor Communications

Awareness

Coordination

Causal Factors Operational Errors (OE)

(data from category A & B incursions between 1997-2000)

- FAA Report on Runway Incursion Information Evaluation Program, 10/12/01

for the period of March 17, 2000 through March 16, 2001.

slide10

Pilot Deviation (PD)

PILOTS are at risk of being a party to an incursion when they are unable to correlate their visual observations of airport signs, markings and lighting and other physical features on the airport with the specific ATC taxi instructions.

Contributing Factors:

-FAILURE TO ASK FOR HELP WHEN CONFUSED

-FAILURE TO USE THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM

-LACK OF TRAINING

-NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE AIRPORT

primary performance factors of pilot deviation runway incursions 1997 2001
Primary Performance Factors of Pilot Deviation Runway Incursions (1997-2001)

There were 972 Pilot Deviation Runway Incursions 719 of these Pilot Deviations were analyzed

87 other pilot deviations included: landing over aircraft in position and landing/departing on closed/wrong runways, taxiways, etc.

  • 537 pilots entered the runway or crossed the hold short line after acknowledging hold short instructions

95 pilots took off without clearance after acknowledging “taxi into position and hold” (TIPH) instructions

primary performance factors of pilot deviation runway incursions 1997 20011

600

537

500

400

300

200

90

95

100

0

Primary Performance Factors of Pilot Deviation Runway Incursions (1997-2001)

Landed over Traffic in Position or Used Incorrect Surface for Departure / Landing

Violated Hold Line after Acknowledging Hold Short

Departed without Clearance after Acknowledging TIPH Instructions

slide13

Conditions at Time of Runway Incursions

60

50

40

Percentage

30

20

10

0

Not Familiar with

Not Familiar with

Unfavorable

Clearance was

Inexperienced at

Airport Diagram

Failed to Follow

Airport Signage

Airport

Environmental

Not Readback

Towered Airports

Not Used

Instructions

Conditions

Causal Factors Pilot Deviations (PD)

Pilot Interviews

(data from category A & B incursions between 1997-2000)

- FAA Report on Runway Incursion Information Evaluation Program

March 17, 2000 through March 16, 2001

distribution of pilot deviations approximate percentages

Other

2%

Commercial

21%

VPD

OE

PD

General Aviation

77%

Distribution of Pilot Deviations(approximate percentages)

- Office of Runway Safety

slide15

Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD)

VEHICLE OPERATORS and PEDESTRIANS are at risk of being a party to an incursion when they are unable to correlate their visual observations of airport signs, markings and lighting and other physical features on the airport with the specific ATC taxi instructions.

Some contributing factors include:

-FAILURE TO ASK FOR HELP WHEN CONFUSED

-FAILURE TO USE THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM

-LACK OF TRAINING

-NOT FAMILIAR WITH AIRPORT

primary performance factors of vehicle pedestrian runway incursions
Primary Performance Factors of Vehicle/Pedestrian Runway Incursions.

All 350 Vehicle/Pedestrian Runway Incursions were analyzed

  • 217 entered the runway without communications or authorization

157 POVs and pedestrians60 airport vehicles

133 instructed to hold short and read back but still entered the runway

109 airport vehicles24 by a non-pilot maintenance taxiing an aircraft

End of Section 3

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