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Relating Ethnicity and Culture to Healthcare Marketing. August 8, 2003. Pamela L. Schneider Senior VP, Client Services Director Rick Johnson & Company, Inc. Our Agency Has a Plethora of Healthcare Experience. Integrated Health Systems Hospitals Managed Care Physician Specialty Groups

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Pamela L. SchneiderSenior VP, Client Services DirectorRick Johnson & Company, Inc.


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Our Agency Has a Plethora of Healthcare Experience

  • Integrated Health Systems

  • Hospitals

  • Managed Care

  • Physician Specialty Groups

  • Clinics and Solo Practitioners

  • Recruitment and Retention

  • Community Healthcare Leadership

  • The list goes on…


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Let’s Begin Today by

Discussing Some Statistics


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Percent of Persons Who Are American Indian and Alaskan Native by County in New Mexico

36.9% to 74.7% Includes: San Juan, McKinley and Cibola Counties

10.9 – 16.3% Includes: Rio Arriba, Sandoval and Socorro Counties

Source: United States Census Bureau Data: www.census.gov

NOTE: Bernalillo County – 13.5% of NM NA pop. or 23,623


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Percent of Persons who are Hispanic or Latino by County in New Mexico

72.9 – 81.6% Includes: Rio Arriba, Mora, San Miguel and Gaudalupe Counties

44.9 – 63.4% Includes: Taos, Colfax, Harding, Santa Fe, Valencia and Socorro as well as Grant, Hidalgo, Luna and Dona Ana Counties

Source: United States Census Bureau Data: www.census.gov

Note: Bernalillo County is 30.4% of NM Pop. or 236,285


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Percent of Persons who are Anglo in New Mexico by County New Mexico

Source: United States Census Bureau Data: www.census.gov


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U.S. Census Data on Nativity and Language Proficiency in New Mexico

Source: United States Census Bureau Data: www.census.gov


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U.S. Census Data on Nativity and Language Proficiency in New Mexico

Source: United States Census Bureau Data: www.census.gov



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10 LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN THE AMERICAN INDIAN Mexico

Source: The Center for Disease Control Website: www.webapp.cdc.gov


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10 LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN THE HISPANIC POPULATION Mexico

Source: The Center for Disease Control Website: www.webapp.cdc.gov


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Our DMA is One of the Top 15 Hispanic Markets in the Country Mexico

Market%/TV HouseholdsHispanic Rank

Los Angeles 30% (1,585,390) 1

New York 15% (1,100,030) 2

Miami-Ft. Lauderdale 37% (550,190) 3

Houston 22% (399,220) 4

Chicago 12% (384,140) 5

Dallas-Ft. Worth 15% (324,120) 6

San Antonio 44% (317,810) 7

San Francisco – Oak- SJ 13% (317,200) 8

Phoenix 16% (246,160) 9

Harl-Wslco-Brns-Mca 81% (232,270) 10

Albuquerque-Santa Fe 33% (206,710)11

Source: 2003 Nielsen Universe Estimates


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Approximately 38% of the MexicoDMA Population is Hispanic

Total DMA Population 1,597,000

Hispanic Percentage 38%

Hispanic Population 602,000

Non-Hispanic Percentage 62%

Non-Hispanic Population 995,000

Source: 2003 Nielsen Universe Estimates


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Hispanics Growing Twice as Fast as Non-Hispanics Mexico

A Rapidly Growing Population

19902000% Change

Hispanic 579,224 785,386 32%

Non-Hispanic 935,845 1,053,660 13%

Source: 1990 and 2000 Census (New Mexico state population


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More Than Four Out of Five Hispanic Mexico

Households Speak Spanish

Speak Spanish 82%

Speak English Only 18%

Source: 2003 Nielsen Universe Estimates


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More Than Four Out of Five Hispanic Mexico

Households Speak Spanish

  • Conveying your message to your target audience is accomplished most effectively in theirlanguage of comfort.

  • The language of comfort is the language spoken at home.

  • Spanish-language dominant Hispanics think and feel in Spanish.

Source: 2003 Nielsen Universe Estimates



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It’s About Reaching Them with Relevance Mexico

  • It’s necessary to connect with target consumers

    • Emotionally

    • Rationally

    • Intellectually

    • Culturally

  • To connect in these ways, you must know about their level of acculturation


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Acculturation, Not Assimilation Mexico

  • Assimilation:

    • A group leaves culture and customs behind and adopts culture and customs of another group

  • Acculturation:

    • A group adopts or borrows customs and traits from another culture


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Acculturation is Defined as… Mexico

  • “Change resulting from contact between cultures”

  • “The process by which people adopt or borrow customs and traits from another culture”

  • “A merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact”

  • “Mutual influence of different cultures in close contact”

Source: “Acculturation” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000

Strategy Research Corp.

Webster New World Dictionary, Third College Edition


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Key Indicators of Acculturation Mexico

  • Language

  • Values


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Latino Acculturation Values (L.A.V.s.)™ Mexico

UNACCULTURATED ACCULTURATED

Success:

Family/group

satisfaction

Success;

Personal

Achievement

Class

distinction/

authority

Obedience/

attached to traditions

Freedom/

open to change

Equality

Individualism

Collectivism

Avoidance

of direct

confrontation

Assertiveness/

aggressiveness

Cooperation/

respect

Competition

Control

over destiny

Fatalism


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Latino Acculturation Stratification Mexico

UNACCULTURATED

ACCULTURATED

CROSSCULTURER

CULTURAL

LOYALIST

CULTURAL

EMBRACER

CULTURALINTEGRATORS

(TM)

  • U.S. Born

  • 2nd, 3rd Generation

  • English

  • Preferred

  • Latino Proud

  • Retro-acculturation

  • Influential

  • Foreign Born

  • Resident

  • Spanish

  • Preferred

  • Professional

  • Aspirational

  • Foreign Born

  • Recent arrival

  • Spanish

  • dependent

  • Traditional values

  • U.S. Born

  • First generation

  • Bilingual &

  • Bicultural

  • Professional

  • Fashion-forward

  • In touch with roots


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Acculturation Nationally Among Hispanic Adults 18+ Mexico

Source: Strategy Research Corp.


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Albuquerque is Highly Acculturated Market Mexico

  • Top 3 Most Acculturated Markets in U.S.:

    • San Antonio

    • Albuquerque

    • San Francisco


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Acculturation Among HA 18+ - MexicoAlbuquerque

Source: Strategy Research Corp.

Source: Strategic Research Corp. 2002


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Factors Influencing Acculturation Mexico

  • Employment

  • Length of Residency in U.S.

  • Language Use/Preference (home and work)

  • Birthplace of Parents

  • Education

  • Generation U.S. Born (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc)

  • Media Preferences (Spanish or English)

  • Values and Attitudes


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Research Shows… Mexico

  • Advertising to Hispanics in English is not as effective as speaking to them in Spanish

  • Spanishlanguagecommercials have better ad recall. (61%)

  • Hispanics have better comprehension of Spanish-language commercials (57%).

  • Spanish commercials are 4.5% times more influential in making purchases decisions.

Source: Roslow Research Group Inc., Spanish vs English Advertising Effectiveness Among Hispanics 2000


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E Mexicothnicity is defined as:rel: of, relating to, or originating from the traits shared by members of a group as a product of their common heredity and cultural tradition(s)


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C Mexicoulture is defined as syn:breeding, cultivation, polish, refinementrel: development, education, learning; enlightenment; refinement, breeding, erudition, manners, class



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  • “Hispanic” Mexico

  • The term “Hispanic” was created by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1970 as an ethnic category for persons who identify themselves as being of Spanish origin.

  • “Hispanic” denotes neither race nor color, and a Hispanic may be White, Black or American Indian

  • Many members of the younger Hispanic population demographic now prefer the term “Latino”.


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  • “Hispanic” Mexico

  • The classification “Hispanic” includes people of many different origins and cultures.

  • Although there is a unifying thread of language and some cultural similarities inherited from the Spanish settlers – There is also a tremendous variety within the Hispanic community



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  • Show Patientsrespeto –

  • People from many Hispanic cultures offer (and expect to receive) deference on the basis of age, sex and status.

  • Patients will naturally offer respeto to the health provider, an authority figure with high social, educational, and economic status.

  • In return, patients rightfully expect to be treated with respect.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • The Healthcare Provider Shows Patientsrespeto by:

  • Addressing Adults by title and family name (Mr./Señor, Mrs./Señora Y, or Madam/Doña)

  • Shaking hands at the beginning of each meeting.

  • Using usted rather than the informal tu for “you”, when speaking Spanish.

  • Making eye contact, without necessarily expecting reciprocation, since some (especially rural) patients may consider it disrespectful to look the health provider, an authority figure, in the eye.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • The Healthcare Provider Shows Patientsrespeto by:

  • Speaking directly to the patient, even when speaking through an interpreter.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Show Patientspersonalismo.

  • Patients from many Hispanic cultures expect to establish a personal, one-on-one relationship – not to be confused with an informal relationship – with the health provider.

  • Although establishing a relationship based onpersonalismomay seem time-consuming, it can actually save time and prevent negative outcomes.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • The Healthcare Provider Shows Patientspersonalismo by:

  • Treating patients in a warm and friendly – but not unduly informal – manner.

  • Showing genuine interest in and concern for patients by asking them about themselves and their family.

  • Sitting close, leaning forward and using gestures when speaking with the patient.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Involve the Family in Decision Making and Care. Patients

  • Families are a source of emotional and physical support and are expected to participate in important medical decisions.

  • The definition of “la familia” is much broader in most Hispanic cultures than in Anglo cultures

  • La familia may show loyalty and support by gathering at the hospital.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Accept a different sense of time. Patients

  • Many people from Hispanic cultures have what might be called a “global” or “indefinite” sense of time – rather than an exact sense of day and hour – in making and keeping appointments.

  • Similarly in presenting a complaint, they may not be able to attach a specific calendar date to the onset or conclusion of a medical complaint or an event.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Accept a different sense of time. Patients

  • They may instead be able to link the event to a season, a phase of the moon, or a particular occurrence, such as a holiday or celebration.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Take pains to establish understanding and agreement. Patients

  • Many patients’ sense of respect for authority may cause them to avoid conflict or confrontation with the health provider by saying too readily that they understand how to take a medication or will follow a treatment plan.

  • The health provider must ensure that understanding is achieved and must try to gain real acceptance of the treatment plan and a commitment to follow it.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Respect the spiritual side of physical complaints. Patients

  • Many Hispanic patients complain that health practitioners, by discounting supernatural and psychological causes of complaints, offer only a fragmentary approach to care.

  • To these patients, this amounts to treating the symptoms, not the disease itself.

  • Practitioners are advised to ask their patients what they believe to be the cause of a complaint and to refrain from ridiculing or discounting the patient’s belief in supernatural or psychological causes.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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Potential Culture-Related Health Concerns Among Hispanic Populations

Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Persons from some Hispanic cultures may have tendency toward certain health concerns because of cultural factors.

  • Specific concerns include:

  • High incidence of teenage pregnancy

  • Low incidence of breast feeding

  • Where breast feeding is practiced, a tendency to do so for a short period and to introduce solid foods earlier than recommended

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Specific concerns include: certain health concerns because of cultural factors.

  • Very low intake of vitamin A.

  • Alcohol abuse, especially by young Mexican males (abetted by cultural taboos against female disclosure of alcohol use).

  • Drug use at levels higher than among non-Hispanic Whites.

  • A high prevalence of undetected non-insulin- dependent diabetes

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Specific concerns include: certain health concerns because of cultural factors.

  • A high incidence of tuberculosis (recommend aggressive screening

  • A high risk for mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.

  • Dietary concerns due to:

    • High consumption of fats (often lard, especially for lower income people) and fried foods

    • A traditional diet high in carbohydrates from beans and rice or corn tortillas

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Specific concerns include: certain health concerns because of cultural factors.

  • Dietary concerns due to:

    • Low intake of green or leafy vegetables and/or milk and eggs, especially in conjunction with increased consumption of meat and fast foods as acculturation occurs.

  • Little tradition for “recreational” physical exercise outside the context of field or other physical labor.

  • Excessive reliance on Azarcon which is about 90 percent lead, as a home remedy for gastrointestinal/intestinal complaints.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Specific concerns include: certain health concerns because of cultural factors.

  • Sharing with family and friends, of hypodermic needles and syringes, which in Mexico are often used to administer vitamins, medications, and contraceptives.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Folk Beliefs of Some Hispanics About Health and Illness That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • Good health is a matter of luck that can easily change. Sick persons may be the innocent victims of “fate,” with little responsibility for taking action to regain health.

  • Illness may be the result of negative forces in the environment or a punishment for transgressions.

  • Balance and harmony are important to health and well-being. Illness may be the result of an imbalance.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Folk Beliefs of Some Hispanics About Health and Illness That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • The natural and supernatural worlds are not clearly distinguishable, and body and soul are inseparable. Telling a patient that an illness is all in the mind is meaningless because there is little or no distinction between somatic and psychosomatic illness.

  • Cure requires family participation and support. The family’s role is to indulge the patient, provide unconditional love and support, and participate in health care decision making.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Folk Beliefs of Some Hispanics About Health and Illness That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • While education and training may be somewhat important, what truly matters is the caregiver’s “gift” or “calling” for curing illness.

  • Moaning, far from being a sign of low tolerance to pain, is a way to reduce pain and to share it with interested others.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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  • Folk Beliefs of Some Hispanics About Health and Illness That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • Diseases may be divided into Anglo and traditional diseases and may be either natural or unnatural.

  • Many people mix and match “modern” medicine and traditional care, consulting modern health providers for Anglo and natural diseases, and folk healers for traditional and unnatural diseases.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page


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American Indian Can Affect Care and TreatmentNative American


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  • Culture-Sensitive Healthcare: American Indian Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • The term “American Indian” refers to members of Indian Tribal nations who live in the United States.

  • “Native American,” a term that has become unpopular among American Indian groups, refers to American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts as one racial ethnic group.

  • Fact: The Native American group as a whole is expected to reach 4.3 million by 2050.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Culture-Sensitive Healthcare: American Indian Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • The majority live in Oklahoma, California, Arizona and New Mexico.

  • Poverty is higher than in the rest of the population and continues to increase.

  • In 1979, 27% of the American Indian population lived below the poverty line; by 1989 this figure had grown to 31%, by 1999 this figure had grown again to 33%.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Make the Patient Welcome.First meetings are important.

    • Extend a warm greeting and smile.

    • Shake hands, introduce yourself, and allow the patient to do the same (thereby showing respect to his or her ancestors)

    • Thank the patient for having chosen your health facility.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • A western style handshake is appropriate and appreciated, don’t be surprised if it is returned by an unusually weak or strong one.

  • The traditional Navajo greeting is not to shake hands, but to extend the hand and gently touch the other person’s hand.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Take Your Time.

  • It is important to spend time with the patient and to avoid appearing hurried or nervous.

  • Patients often travel great distances at great financial hardship to see a physician; if the physician spends only five or ten minutes with them, the message is clear and negative.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Speak Plainly.

  • Avoid medical or other terms that may not be understood, but at the same time, don’t talk down to the patient or appear to treat him or her as a child.

  • A soft concerned voice will do much to make the patient feel at ease.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Respect Silence.

  • Be concise and give the patient time to reflect on what you are saying.

  • Don’t try to fill up the time.

  • American Indians are taught the value of silence and may also need time to mentally translate what they hear into their own language.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Understand Tribal Diagnosis.

  • The patient may have come to you following diagnosis by a tribal diagnostician.

  • Due to this, the patient may be unfamiliar with the technique of identifying the specific location of pain.

  • Instead of asking the patient, “Where is the pain?”, ask the patient to point to the most intense area of pain.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Accommodate Tribal Healing.

  • Patients may wish to perform certain tribal healing ceremonies, even in the hospital.

  • Try to accommodate these healings as a way to improve both the patient’s and the family’s confidence in the care.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Show Special Respect to the Elderly.

  • Great respect is given to the elderly, in spite of taboos connected with death.

  • Caregivers gain approval by treating the elderly with kindness and respect and not appearing to criticize or scold them.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Think Carefully About Family Care.

  • Poverty, distance from the medical facility, and taboos against dying in the home may make it impractical to release to the family a patient needing long-term or terminal care.

  • Discuss options with the family and try to ascertain attitudes about home care before releasing a person into the family care.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Involve the Extended Family.

  • Extended family plays an important role in healthcare decision making.

  • Often many family members will appear with a patient who is to be admitted for a hospital stay.

  • Include family members when decisions regarding treatment options are needed.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Involve the Extended Family.

  • Very often, a patient will postpone surgery because the consent of the family leader, often the eldest female must be obtained first.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Accept a Different Sense of Time.

  • Most American Indians are present-oriented and take a casual approach to clocks and time, which is viewed as a continuum with no beginning and no end.

  • Poses difficulties with regulation of medication.

  • Watch telling the patient to take medications with meals, as the patient may have three meals today, two meals tomorrow and four the meals the day after that.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Accept a Different Sense of Time.

  • Many Indians are task-conscious rather than time- conscious, paying more attention to finishing task than to a clock or to an appointment schedule.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Keys to a Good Professional Relationship with American Indian Patients

  • Give and Expect Generosity.

  • Indian culture discourages competitive behavior and encourages giving, sharing, and cooperation.

  • Generosity and doing things for others are regarded highly.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Potential Culture-Related Health Concerns Among American Indians

  • Average life expectancy of 71.1 years –lower than all other races in the United States.

  • Many health problems and the high incidence of accidents and suicides.

  • The Infant death rate is high, a fact attributed to a high incidence of diarrhea and a harsh physical environment.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Potential Culture-Related Health Concerns Among American Indians

  • Women may choose not to seek prenatal care, because pregnancy and birth are considered normal processes and health facilities are associated with illness and disease.

  • Pregnant Navajo women are forbidden to attend traditional healing ceremonies to avoid contact with illness or disease.

  • Hold your maternal and child care clinics in a location separate from other clinical services.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Potential Culture-Related Health Concerns Among American Indians

  • A high incidence of non-insulin-dependent (Type II) diabetes – increased dramatically in New Mexico.

  • American Indians are genetically predisposed to the disease – triggered by a radical change in eating habits and increase in obesity among this population.

  • Myocardial infarction incidence is higher among Navajo men and a gradual increase among Navajo women.

  • Alcoholism among this population is very high.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Potential Culture-Related Health Concerns Among American Indians

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is also fairly high among this population.

  • Navajo children have low length-for-age and high weight-for-length measures because of suboptimal nutrition.

  • Of the 10 leading causes of death among American Indians, 5 are related to diet.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Religious and Spiritual Beliefs That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • Tribes share a number of fundamental health, illness, and illness prevention beliefs.

  • Life comes from the Great Spirit (or Supreme Creator) and all healing begins with him.

  • Man is a threefold being made up of body, mind and spirit.

  • Health or wellness is due to a preservation of harmony among the body, heart, mind and soul.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Religious and Spiritual Beliefs That Can Affect Care and Treatment

  • Tribes share a number of fundamental health, illness, and illness prevention beliefs.

  • Plants and animals, as well as humans, are part of the spirit world that exists alongside, and is intermingled with, the physical world.

  • Death is not an enemy but a natural phenomenon of life

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Navajo Application of These Beliefs Treatment

  • Navajo society is matriarchal - Women hold a higher position than men

  • Focus of Navajo traditional religion is on maintaining a harmonious relationship with all living things.

  • Illness is thought to result from improper thought and behavior affecting oneself as well as the external, natural world of plants, animals, and the environment.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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  • Navajo Application of These Beliefs Treatment

  • Illness also is attributed to an improper use of ceremonies.

  • As a rule, Navajo may not seek medical care for a number of discomforts and acute illnesses for which a non-Navajo would seek relief.

  • Illness, like death, is simply viewed and accepted as a natural part of life.

  • Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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Marketing and Advertising to Hispanic and Native American Populations

Be culturally sensitive and aware

Spanish language spots (radio or television should be produced specifically for the market and not a lift of the English spot)

Native Americans can be spoken to in their own language on radio (much tougher – there are many different dialects within the state)

Source: Virginia Tech’s Office of Multicultural Affairs Home Page – Updated 2002


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