Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers. Piping System - What is that? Concept Layout Development Piping Components & their access requirement. Straight length requirements. Orientation of various tapings, components, etc. Piping Drains & Vents Insulation.
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Piping System - What is that?
Concept Layout Development
Piping Components & their access requirement.
Straight length requirements.
Orientation of various tapings, components, etc.
Piping Drains & Vents
Material & Sizing
Critical piping system consideration.
Pipe Stress Analysis.
Let us first Discuss about WHAT IS PIPE!
It is a Tubular item made of metal, plastic, glass etc. meant for conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows.
It is a very important component for any industrial plant. And it’s engineering plays a major part in overall engineering of a Plant.
In next few pages we shall try to familiarize about pipe and it’s components.
Now let us start with a plant where we see three tanks.
Tank-1, Tank-2 and Tank-3
We have to transfer the content of Tank no. 1 to the other two tanks.
We will need to connect pipes to transfer the fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3
LET US BRING THE PIPES.
We need some branch connections
We need some bend connections
We have just brought the pipes, now we need to solve some more problems.
Pipes are all straight pieces.
To solve these problems we need the pipe components, which are called
Anyway, the pipes and fittings are in place, but the ends are yet to be joined with the Tank nozzles.
These are the pipe fittings,
There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some common types are -
Elbows/Bends, Tees/Branches, Reducers/Expanders, Couplings, Olets, etc.
We now have to complete the end connections.
These, in piping term, we call
This is a welded joint
So far this is a nice arrangement.
But there is no control over the flow from Tank-1 to other tanks.
We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed
To control the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a special component.
That is called - VALVE
There are many types of valves, categorized based on their construction and functionality,
Those are - Gate, Globe, Check, Butterfly, etc.
Other than valves another important line component of pipe line is a filter, which cleans out derbies from the flowing fluid. This is called a STRAINER
Here we see a more or less functional piping system, with valves and strainer installed.
Let us now investigate some aspects of pipe flexibility.
In such case we need to fit a flexible pipe component at that location, which is called an EXPANSION JOINT
When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may also like know the parameters like, pressure, temperature, flow rate etc. of the fluid.
To know these information we need to install INSTRUMENTS in the pipeline.
There are various types instruments to measure various parameters. Also there are specific criteria for installation of various pipe line instruments.
Next we shall look into how to SUPPORT the pipe/and it’s components.
Here are some of the pipe supporting arrangements. There can be numerous variants. All depend on piping designer’s preference and judgement.
Let us see some OTHER types of supports
If we click on any line it will show the Data embedded.
After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work.
Here we carryout pipe routing / layout in Virtual 3D environment.
We use PDS 3D software to route piping in the Plant virtual 3D space.
We call this as piping modeling or physical design.
Let us look into typical Vent and Drain arrangement in a pipeline
This is a 3D model of Feed water line along with pumps and other accessories
Let us have a look into a piping model done by PDS 3D
INSULATION- When hot fluid flows through pipe then generally pipe is insulated.
Cold pipes are also insulated
Other types of Insulation
INSULATION MATERIAL - The insulating material should be bad conductor of heat.
There are two basic categories
1) Fibrous Material, which has large voids full of air between fibers - Cork, Glass Wool, Mineral Wool, Organic Fibers. Note stagnant air is a bad conductor.
2) Cellular Material, which has closed void cells full or air - Calcium Silicate, Cellular Glass (Foam Glass), Polyurethane Foam (PUF), Polystyrene (Thermocol), etc.
Some times Cast material like Cement Plaster or Plaster of Paris are also used.
INSULATION CLADDING - Insulation materials are generally soft or fragile. So the outer surface of insulation are protected with Aluminum sheet or GI sheet cladding.
Have a look at how pipes are insulated, and general components of insulation
Pipe Material Selection - to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property.
Find out type of Fluid flowing
Find out Fluid Temp. & Pressure
Check Pipe life Expectancy
Select suitable Material per practice (Note-1)
Check Mat. Listed in Design Code
Pipe Material OK
Note-1 : Material is selected per past experience with cost in mind and per material listed in design code. If material is not listed in code we may select next suitable material listed.
Pipe Sizing Calculation - to select required pipe diameter based on velocity and pressure drop.
Find out Flow volume per second
Check Velocity Allowable per second
Calc. flow area required and Pipe size
Calc. Press. Drop for that Pipe size
Check Press. Drop meets Press. Budget
Pipe Size OK
Pipe Thickness Selection - to select appropriate pipe thickness based on flowing fluid property.
Select Mat. & Diameter as above
Find out Fluid Temp. & Pressure
Decide on Corrosion allowance
Calc. Pipe Thickness per Code
Increase Pipe Size
In Power plant there are some piping which carries steam at high pressure and temperature. And also there are piping which carries water at High pressure. These pipes carries the main cycle steam and water of the steam power plant.
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS
Tools we use
Codes and Standards
Dynamic Support, Snubber
Types of Pipe Supports
In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of pipe supports. Here is some elaboration
When pipes are routed UNDER GROUND (Buried) following points to be kept in mind:
Freeze Protection of outdoor Piping:
Hope you have gathered the fundamentals
on the subject of Piping