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Pharmacology Tips. This is an INTRODUCTORY course It will NOT cover all you need to know, but help you know how to find information for safe medication administration LISTEN to lecture & discussion Learn major classifications of medications

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pharmacology tips
Pharmacology Tips
  • This is an INTRODUCTORY course
  • It will NOT cover all you need to know, but help you know how to find information for safe medication administration
  • LISTEN to lecture & discussion
  • Learn major classifications of medications
  • Review “Patient Teaching Tips” and “Take Home Points”
pharmacology

Pharmacology

Introduction

Dosage Calculation

units of measure
Units of Measure
  • Apothecary
    • Measures grains, drams, minims
  • Metric
    • Measures milliliters, centimeters, kilograms, liters
  • Household
    • Measures teaspoons, ounces, drops
apothecary
Apothecary
  • Rarely used
  • Convert to metric ASAP - to prevent med errors
  • Use Equivalents Table or metric “clock”

60 mg

10 mg

gr 1

gr 1/6

gr 1/4

15 mg

45 mg

gr 3/4

gr 1/2

30 mg

converting in the metric system
Converting in the Metric System
  • Move decimal point left or right to change
    • 1 G = 1000mg
how to convert
How to Convert
  • Dimensional Analysis
    • Sec. x min./sec. x hrs./min. = ______hr
  • Ratio-Proportion
    • Sec/min = Min/?
  • Desire over Have times Quantity
    • D/H x Q = amount needed
be consistent
Be Consistent
  • Decide on a method of conversion that is comfortable to you
  • Consistently use the same method
  • Make it a habit to label you work
  • Write down all the steps – taking shortcuts often leads to mistakes
equivalents
Equivalents
  • Certain ones should be committed to memory for quick calculation
  • Tables in drug handbooks and Taber’s
    • Basic equivalents within a system
      • 1000 mg = 1 gm
      • 1 cc = 1 mm
    • Standard equivalents between systems
      • 1 tsp = 5 cc = 60 gtt
      • 2.2 lb = 1 kg
slide9
Approximate Equivalents
  • 1 gr = 60 mg
  • 15 gr = 1 g = 1000 mg
  • 1000mcg = 1 mg
  • 1 kg = 2.2 lb
  • 1 ml = 15 minims
  • 4 ml = 1 dr
  • 5 ml = 1 tsp
  • 30 ml = 1 oz = 2 Tbs = 6 tsp = 8 dr
  • 500 ml = 1 pt = 16 oz
  • 1000 ml = 1 L = 1 qt = 32 oz
  • Taken from: J. M. Daniels & L. M. Smith. 2005. Clinical Calculations, A Unified Approach, 5th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar.
abbreviations
Abbreviations
  • Key
  • gr = grain dr = dram
  • mg = milligram tsp = teaspoon
  • g = gram oz = ounce
  • kg = kilogram Tbs = Tablespoon
  • lb = pound pt = pint
  • gtt = drop L = liter
  • ml = milliliter qt = quart
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