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1. Pest management in storage Joe Rickman and Martin Gummert,
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
3. Ideal Conditions for pest Environment Conditions
Temperature 20 - 40oC
Relative humidity 60-70%
Mixing grain lots
old and new
Longer storage >no insects
4. Common Post harvest insects Lesser grain borer (Rhzopertha dominica),
Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae),
Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella),
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
Beetles 15-18 days
Moths 28 - 35 days
5. Management of insect pests
6. Harvesting and drying Grain moisture content (12-14%)
Minimize cracked and broken grain during processing
Don’t mix old and new grain
7. Cleaning and disinfesting the storage system Clean storage - containers, structures, equipment and bags
May need to treat with insecticide
Malathion (50EC) at 5ml/20l of water @20ml/m2,
Fenitrothion (50EC) at 5ml/l water @20ml/m2,
Deltamethrin (2.5% WP) at 1.5g/l water @20ml/m2
8. Treat infected grain Grain treatment
Heat < 15, >55 (15mins)
9. Sealing the system (low oxygen system)
10. Live Insect Counts (Insects/ kg)
11. Bag dipping (Live Insects/kg)
12. Rats Species
Black rat or House rat (Rattus rattus)
Norway rat or Common rat (Rattus norvegicus)
House mouse (Mus musculus)
Feed on grain
rats 25 gm of food per day,
mice 3-4 gm per day
Spoilage and contamination of grain
Damage materials –tarpaulins, bags, electric cables
13. Rat management Keep the store clean-remove any spilt grain
Store bags in tidy stacks set up on pallets,
Store any empty or old bags and fumigation sheets on pallets, and if possible in separate stores!
Keep the store free of rubbish Bum or bury it!
Keep the area surrounding the store free of tall weeds
Keep the area in the vicinity of the store free of any stagnant water
14. Fungi Most common :
Aspergillus and Penicillium
Grain spoilage and mycotoxins (poisonous)
Moisture content of the stored grain
Condition of the grain going into storage
Length of time the is grain stored and
Amount of insect and mite activity in the grain.
15. Fungi Control
Moisture content (12-14%)
dry heat at 65oC for 6 days
hot water treatment at 52-55oC
Dithane M-45 and Benlate at 3 grams kg-1.
16. Storage Hygiene Keep storage areas clean.
Clean storage rooms after they are emptied
Placing rat-traps and barriers in drying and storage areas. Cats deter and help control rats and mice
Inspect storage room regularly to keep it vermin proof.
Inspect the stored seeds once a week for signs of insect infestation.
17. Priorities Management Options Good hygiene -cleanliness in store, clean bags