Middle English Period ( 1066-1485). By Jesse B., Jessica P., Sofi R., and Jen D. Important Events. The Invasion of England 1066.
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By Jesse B., Jessica P., Sofi R., and Jen D.
The Third Crusade lasted from 1189 to 1192 and is also known as the Kings’ Crusade. It was an attempt by the European leaders to re-conquer the Holy Lands of Saladin. Henry II of England and Phillip II of France joined together to lead a Crusade against the Egyptian and Syrian forces of Saladin. King Henry died in 1189, which left Richard I in command of the English. Frederick I Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, led a massive army across Anatolia, but died from drowning before reaching the Holy Land therefore many of his troops were discouraged and went home. On September 2, 1192, King Richard and Saladin signed a treaty in which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but unarmed Christians would be allowed to visit the city. This failure would lead to a Fourth Crusade six years later.
The Black Death was one of the earliest pandemics in history. It is sometimes known as the Bubonic plague. It lasted from 1347 to 1350. It ravaged cities causing widespread hysteria and death, killing over one third of the population of Europe. This massive loss in population affected all aspects of society, including trade, the church, music and art. As a result of death in the church, written language was almost lost and whole churches were abandoned.
The Magna Carta was signed in 1215. It is one of the most influential documents in English history. It was not intended to be a lasting statement of legal principle, rather a practical solution to a political crisis. It prevented the King from the use of tyrannical behavior and required the King to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, as well as accept that his will could be bound by law. All of the clauses of the Magna Carta, except for three, have now become obsolete, though its reinterpretation throughout the centuries has guaranteed its status and longevity.
For thirty years, a bitter struggle for the English throne was waged between two branches on the same family, the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both descended from Edward lll. Each house was represented by a rose, which is why it is known as the War of the Roses. The first fight broke out in May of 1455. The War of the Roses ended when Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, defeated King Richard III, a Yorkist at the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. After the battle, Henry Tudor became King Henry Vll of England and Wales. Henry Vll (representing the Lancaster family) married Elizabeth of York (representing the York family). This marriage united the two families. Henry created the Tudor rose, containing both the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. It symbolized the end of a struggle between York and Lancaster.
Knighthoods are still issued in: