Middle English Period ( 1066-1485). By Jesse B., Jessica P., Sofi R., and Jen D. Important Events. The Invasion of England 1066.
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By Jesse B., Jessica P., Sofi R., and Jen D.
The Third Crusade lasted from 1189 to 1192 and is also known as the Kings’ Crusade. It was an attempt by the European leaders to re-conquer the Holy Lands of Saladin. Henry II of England and Phillip II of France joined together to lead a Crusade against the Egyptian and Syrian forces of Saladin. King Henry died in 1189, which left Richard I in command of the English. Frederick I Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, led a massive army across Anatolia, but died from drowning before reaching the Holy Land therefore many of his troops were discouraged and went home. On September 2, 1192, King Richard and Saladin signed a treaty in which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but unarmed Christians would be allowed to visit the city. This failure would lead to a Fourth Crusade six years later.
The Black Death was one of the earliest pandemics in history. It is sometimes known as the Bubonic plague. It lasted from 1347 to 1350. It ravaged cities causing widespread hysteria and death, killing over one third of the population of Europe. This massive loss in population affected all aspects of society, including trade, the church, music and art. As a result of death in the church, written language was almost lost and whole churches were abandoned.
The Magna Carta was signed in 1215. It is one of the most influential documents in English history. It was not intended to be a lasting statement of legal principle, rather a practical solution to a political crisis. It prevented the King from the use of tyrannical behavior and required the King to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, as well as accept that his will could be bound by law. All of the clauses of the Magna Carta, except for three, have now become obsolete, though its reinterpretation throughout the centuries has guaranteed its status and longevity.
For thirty years, a bitter struggle for the English throne was waged between two branches on the same family, the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both descended from Edward lll. Each house was represented by a rose, which is why it is known as the War of the Roses. The first fight broke out in May of 1455. The War of the Roses ended when Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, defeated King Richard III, a Yorkist at the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. After the battle, Henry Tudor became King Henry Vll of England and Wales. Henry Vll (representing the Lancaster family) married Elizabeth of York (representing the York family). This marriage united the two families. Henry created the Tudor rose, containing both the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. It symbolized the end of a struggle between York and Lancaster.
Many of the famous poems and books looked back upon in great respect were published in the Middle English period. Major writers of this age was Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, John Gawer, Robery Henryson and The Pearl Poet, these men were the known as the Ricardian Poets.Geoffrey Chaucer born 1344 and died in approx. 1400, his birth date is unknown. He was the son of a wine merchant and he had a very active public life. He fought in the hundred years war and in 1374 he was appointed to Controller of Customs. During those 12 years he wrote "Troilus and Criseyde" and "The Canterbury Tales" which contained 84 manscripts.The Pearl Poet, this was a name given to a man named Pearl who was an author of poetry and was a contemporary of Geoffrey Chauar, John Gower and Will Langland. The founf poems were "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", "Patience", "Cleanness" and "Saint Erkenwald. The poemss are only proven to exist from a single surviving manuscript, now held in the British Library. His poetry is conversant with learning, shows an interest in technica; vocabulary about hunting and the court, the landscape of his region and has an interest in poverty as a Christian virtue. His poems were educational and honourably mentioned.
Popular Ballads, became present in the Middle English Period. The ballads were originally songs intended for interpreting a dance, but the narrative element gradually became more important and the ballad became what it still stands for: a song that tells a story. They deal for the most part upper-class individuals and families and are hence aristocratic rather then democratic in tone. The popular balads almost all belong to the late Middle Ages; the literary ballads began to be written in the late 18th century as the result of the romantic revival of interest in the Middle Ages. Some of the many ballads of that time were Edward, The Three Ravens, The Twa Corbres and Sir Patrick Spens.William Langland was an English poet, who was famous for his remarkable 14th century poem "Piers the Plowman". This poem was in the time of Edward VI, who considered worthy of being printed especially with the poem indicating a desire for reformation in religion. This became such a successful and still effects today with the Piers Plowan, 3 different versions all using either A, B or C which people still use today to identify methods of poems through the poets.
Knighthoods are still issued in: