Metabolism
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Metabolism. Why Study Metabolism?. Classification of bacteria Oxygen Tolerance Biochemical reactions Acids, Ammonia, Gases Fermentation Products Food Products Yogurt, Sour Cream, Bread, Alcohol Commercial Products Citric Acid, Plastics Environmental Cleanup. Ying & Yang of Metabolism.

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Metabolism

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Metabolism

Metabolism


Why study metabolism

Why Study Metabolism?

  • Classification of bacteria

    • Oxygen Tolerance

    • Biochemical reactions

      • Acids, Ammonia, Gases

  • Fermentation Products

    • Food Products

      • Yogurt, Sour Cream, Bread, Alcohol

    • Commercial Products

      • Citric Acid, Plastics

  • Environmental Cleanup

Chapter 5


Ying yang of metabolism

Ying & Yang of Metabolism

  • Metabolism = Anabolism + Catabolism

  • Photosynthesis requires Respiration

  • Respiration requires Photosynthesis

  • Energy Production = Energy Consumption

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Breakdown

Proteins to Amino Acids, Starch to Glucose

Synthesis

Amino Acids to Proteins, Glucose to Starch

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Overview of metabolism

Overview of Metabolism

  • Source of Energy (Photo- vs. Chemotroph)

    • Source of Electrons

    • Carrier of Electrons

    • Final Electron Acceptor

  • Source of Carbon (Auto- vs. Heterotroph)

    • Auto- : Carbon Dioxide

    • Hetero- : Organic Compounds

Chapter 5


Classification based on metabolism

Classification based on Metabolism

  • Where microbes get their energy?

    • Sunlight vs. Chemical

    • Photo- vs. Chemo- trophs

  • How do they obtain carbon?

    • Carbon Dioxide (or inorganic cmpds.) vs. Organic Compounds (sugars, amino acids)

    • Auto- vs. Hetero- trophs

  • Examples

    • Photoautotrophs vs. Photoheterotrophs

    • Chemoautotrophs vs. Chemoheterotrophs

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Types of trophs

Types of -trophs

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Source of electrons

Source of Electrons

  • Autotrophs

    • Photosynthesis

    • H2O, H2S

  • Chemotrophs

    • Organic Compounds

    • Carbohydrates (C H2O)

      • Glucose, Lactose, Sucrose, Mannitol, Citrate

    • Amino Acids

Chapter 5


Electron carriers

Electron Carriers

  • Photosynthesis

    • NADP + H to NADPH

  • Respiration

    • NAD + H to NADH

    • FAD + H to FADH

  • Contain Niacin and Riboflavin

    • Vitamins, not stable

    • Can’t store these molecules

Chapter 5


Final electron acceptor

Final Electron Acceptor

  • Photosynthesis

    • CO2 + H’s to CH2O

    • Stores energy

  • Respiration

    • Aerobic

      • 1/2 O2 + H 2 to H2O

    • Anaerobic

      • Fermentation

Chapter 5


Movement of electrons

Movement of Electrons

  • Chemical reactions

  • Oxidation Reactions

  • Reduction Reactions

  • Reactions Coupled

    • Redox reactions

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Example of Redox Equations

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Example of Redox Equations

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Example of Redox Equations

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Examples

Examples

  • ATP  ADP + P

    • Oxidation, release energy

  • ADP + P  ATP

    • Reduction, stores energy

  • NAD + H  NADH

  • FADH  FAD + H

  • NH4 + 11/2O2NO2- +H2O + 2H + ATP

  • 2H2 + O2 2H2 O

Chapter 5


Examples1

Examples

  • Cellular Respiration

    • C6H12 O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + 38 ATP

  • Photosynthesis

    • 6H2O + 6CO2 + light  C6H12 O6 + 6O2

  • Nitrification

    • NH4 NO2 to NO3

      • Ammonia to Nitrite to Nitrate

  • Ammonification

    • N2 NH4

Chapter 5


Respiration

Respiration

  • Overview;

    • Glucose to Carbon dioxide + Water +Energy

    • C6H12O6 + O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP

    • Glucose is highly reduced; contains energy

    • Oxygen receives the electrons to form energy

  • 4 separate reactions

    • Glycolysis, Transition Reaction, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport, Chemiosomosis

  • Requires Oxygen

Chapter 5


Steps in respiration

Steps in Respiration

  • Electron Donors

    • Organic Compounds (Glucose preferred)

  • Electron Carriers

    • NAD to NADH

    • FAD to FADH

  • Electron Acceptors-Terminal

    • O2 to H2O

  • Phosphorylation Reactions

    • ADP to ATP

  • Chemiosmosis Reactions

Chapter 5


Glycolysis 10 steps

Glycolysis- 10 steps

  • Glucose is Phosphorylated to form Fructose 1,6-diphosphate

  • Split to form 2 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

  • Final Products are:

    • 2 Pyruvic Acid (C3H4O3)

      • Compare to original glucose - C6H12O6

    • 2 NADH

    • 2 ATP

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Transition reaction

Transition Reaction

  • Pyruvic Acid  Acetyl - Co A + CO2 + NADH

  • C2H4O2

Chapter 5


Kreb s cycle

Kreb’s Cycle

  • Figure E.3, A29

  • Acetyl CoA  Carbon Dioxide

    • C2H4O2 to CO2

    • Energy produced/Acetyl CoA (x2 for /Glucose)

      • 3 NADH

      • 1 FADH

      • 1 ATP

  • Metabolic Wheel

    • Fats, amino acids, etc. enter or leave

    • Citrate is product of first reaction

      • Simmons Citrate Media

Chapter 5


Electron transport chain

Electron Transport Chain

  • NADH oxidized to NAD

  • FAD reduced to FADH

  • Cytochromes shuffle electrons finally to O2

    • Cytochrome Oxidase important in G - ID

  • H2O formed and ATP

  • 3 ATP / 1 NADH

  • 2 ATP / 1 FADH

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Fermentation products from pyruvate

Fermentation Products from Pyruvate

  • Homolactic = Lactic Acid

    • Yogurt, Lactobacillus

  • Alcohol + CO2

  • Propionic Acid

  • Butyric Acid

  • Acetic Acid

  • Succinic Acid

  • Butylene to Acetoin

    • basis for VP Test (Vogues-Proskauer)

Chapter 5


Fermentation products

Fermentation Products

  • Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide

    • Yeast mostly

  • Lactic Acid

    • Humans, muscles without oxygen

    • Bacteria (Lactobacillus-yogurt)

  • Butyric Acid

    • Rancid butter, Clostridium-gangrene

  • Acetoin

    • Butanediol fermentation in Klebsiella

  • Propionic Acid

    • Swiss Cheese

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Fermentation in Yeast

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Fermentation in Muscle

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • Plants

    • CO2 + H2O + Light  C6H12O6 + O2

    • Water is split to release electrons

  • Bacteria

    • H2S is used not water

      • Sulfur or Sulfuric Acid formed

      • Oxygen not released

    • Chlorophyll is different

    • Strict Anaerobe

    • Purple & Green Sulfur Bacteria

Chapter 5


Chemiosmosis

Chemiosmosis

  • Production of ATP in Electron Transport

  • Electrochemical Gradient Formed between membranes

  • H+ (Protons) generated from NADH

  • Electrical Force (+) & pH Force (Acid)

  • Gradient formed

  • ATPase enzyme that channels H+ from High to Low concentration

    • 3 ATP/NADH

    • 2 ATP/NADH

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Summary of respiration

Summary of Respiration

  • Aerobic Respiration

    • Glycolysis

    • Transition Rx.

    • Kreb’s Cycle

    • Electron Transport Chain

  • Anaerobic Respiration

    • Pyruvate 

      • Lactic Acid

      • Mixed Acids

      • Alcohol + CO2

    • Recycle NADH

    • 2 ATP / Glucose

Chapter 5


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