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Merging the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions : Integrating aquaculture with agriculture. Kevin Fitzsimmons University of Arizona, Professor World Aquaculture Society, Past-President American Tilapia Association, Sec./Tres. Global food crisis. Rapidly increasing population

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Merging the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions : Integrating aquaculture with agriculture

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Merging the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions : Integrating aquaculture with agriculture

Kevin FitzsimmonsUniversity of Arizona, Professor

World Aquaculture Society, Past-President

American Tilapia Association, Sec./Tres.


Global food crisis

  • Rapidly increasing population

  • Diversion of foods to fuels

  • Increased costs for water, fertilizer, fuel

  • Multiple demands for farmland (urban sprawl, industrial and mining, solar and wind generation, wildlife conservation, watershed protection, etc.)

  • Need for second generation biofuels


Need new model for food production

  • Green Revolution – huge increase in food production, but heavy reliance on irrigation, fuel and fertilizer

  • Blue Revolution – almost 50% of seafood is farm raised, but many environmental impacts (effluents causing eutrophication, algae blooms, cage conflicts with other users in oceans, bays and lakes)


Green Revolution

Benefits

Costs

Large demand for fertilizer

Increases in irrigation (area, amount, frequency)

Less “organic”

More pollution

Needs

More education & training

  • Large increases in yield

  • Improved varieties

    Needs

  • Increased demand for trained specialists

  • Sophisticated farmers


Blue Revolution

Benefits

Costs

Demand for feeds with fishmeal

Demands for clean water (volume and surface area)

Diseases and parasites

Effluent pollution, algae

Needs

On-land farms

More education & training

  • Large increases in seafood yield

  • Domesticated stocks

    Needs

  • Increased demand for trained specialists

  • Sophisticated farmers


Historical perspective

  • Traditional farming around the world integrated livestock and crops

  • East and South Asian farmers have long tradition of integrating agriculture and aquaculture

  • Asian sustainable farming systems support huge populations

  • Fish – vegetable – rice (complex carb) diet is suggested by most nutrition experts


Historical perspective

  • Modern agriculture cannot follow Asian model of small-farm integrated systems (gardening)

  • We need an industrial version merging aqua- and agri- cultures

  • Taking the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions


Green Revolutions weaknesses are Blue Revolutions needs and vice-versa

  • Fertilizer demand

  • Increase in irrigation

  • Chemical fertilizers pollute groundwater

  • Industrial crops with by-products

  • Aquaculture effluent rich in N and P

  • Fish grow well in irrigation water

  • Fish wastes are slow release, organic

  • Fish feeds need alternatives for fish meal and oil


Models

  • Arid lands

  • Tropical lands

  • Tropical coastal

  • Temperate lands

  • Marine


Arid Integrated Systems

  • Tilapia Grapes, wheat, olives, barley, sorghum, cotton, melons, peppers


Data report – Tilapia effluents irrigating cotton

  • Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0

  • Added 19.7 kg/ha total N during one crop.


Olives with aquaculture effluent

Olives with well water


Data report -Olives irrigated with effluent


Tropical Inland Integrated Systems

  • Tilapia oil palm, rice, sugar cane


Coastal Integrated Systems

  • Shrimp / fish Halophytes and seaweeds


Fish-shrimp-halophytes Eritrea


Shrimp and Salicornia(halophyte)


Temperate Integrated Systems

  • Carpvegetables

  • Catfishsoybeans, corn

  • Troutalfalfa, vegetables

  • Aquaponics


Marine Integrated Systems

  • Salmon kelps, nori, mussels

  • Shrimpseaweeds and oysters

  • Fishseaweeds, bivalves


Shrimp/fish and edible seaweeds


Data report - Daily growth rates of Gracilaria with shrimp effluent over 4 weeks

% growth per day


Why Tilapia ?

  • Second most important farmed fish after the carps

  • Most widely grown of any farmed fish

  • In 2007 moved up to fifth most popular seafood in the US


What’s needed next?

  • Large scale investment

  • Best technologies of ag and aqua

  • Economies of scale

  • Governmental consideration

  • Trained production staff and semi-skilled farming staff


Multiple use of Water

Gila Farms, AZ


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