Measuring police effectiveness
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MEASURING POLICE EFFECTIVENESS. Bill Bieck. Measuring Police Effectiveness. Implementing Neighborhood-Oriented Policing: The Houston Experience-- Where to start? Political Context Facilitating Change Executive Sessions + Reports + Implementation Reports

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Measuring police effectiveness

MEASURING POLICE EFFECTIVENESS

Bill Bieck


Measuring police effectiveness1

Measuring Police Effectiveness

  • Implementing Neighborhood-Oriented Policing: The Houston Experience--Where to start?

    • Political Context

    • Facilitating Change

      • Executive Sessions + Reports + Implementation Reports

      • Department Command Staff Meetings (Assistant Chiefs): change orientation

      • Command Meetings (Assistant Chief and Captains): change orientation.


Developmental legacy

Developmental Legacy

  • Kansas City Interactive Patrol Program

  • Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment

  • Kansas City Directed Patrol Program (introduction of “tele-serve”)

  • Kansas City Response Time Analysis Study

  • San Diego One/Two Officer Car Study

  • San Diego Field Interrogation Study

  • San Diego Community-Oriented Policing (COP) Program

  • New Haven directed-Deterrent Patrol Study

  • Rand Study of Criminal Investigations


Developmental legacy cont

Developmental Legacy - Cont.

  • Forensic Evaluation of Police Crime Labs

  • Wilmington’s Split Force Program

  • Nashville’s Helicopter Patrol Study

  • Nashville’s Replication of Kansas City’s Preventive Patrol Experiment

  • Flint, Michigan’s Foot Patrol Program

  • Newark’s Foot Patrol Program

  • Newport News, Virginia’s, Problem-Oriented Policing Study (New Briarfield)

  • Washington Metropolitan Police Dept’s Repeat Offender Program (ROP)


Developmental legacy cont1

Developmental Legacy - Cont.

  • Differential Police Response Experiment (Garden Grove, Toledo, and Greenville)

  • Patrol Emphasis Program (LEAA)

  • Integrated Criminal Apprehension Program (LEAA)

  • Managing Patrol Operations (MPO)

  • Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI)

  • Serious, Habitual (Juvenile) Offender Comprehensive Action Program (SHOCAP/LEAA)

  • Minneapolis’ Study regarding Domestic Violence.


The patrol function beat design reconfiguration

The Patrol Function: Beat Design/Reconfiguration

  • Districts, beats, zones, divisions, sectors, commands, car territories, etc.: What’s the purpose of a beat, zone, district, division, etc.?

    • MANAGEABLE area, crime suppression and accountability; traffic analysis, ability to impact problems.

  • Issues regarding beat design/reconfiguration

    • Type(s) of area

    • Beat, etc., boundaries


The patrol function staffing deployment resource allocation

The Patrol Function: Staffing/Deployment/Resource Allocation

  • Staffing relief factor (SRF)

  • Work demands (temporal) analysis

  • Cross-beat/sector dispatches

  • Repeat location analysis

  • One-two officer units

  • “Rovers”

  • Time management

  • Territorial imperative

  • “GBs” and “wolfpacks”


Operations patrol

Operations: Patrol

  • Types of patrol: What’s the objective? What do you want to accomplish? Traditional, random, routine, conventional patrol vis-à-vis directed patrol (DP) and self-directed activities (SDAs)

  • “Snoopervision,” supervision, or management: Who Works for whom?


Operations patrol cont

Operations: Patrol - Cont.

  • Administrative: rules, regulations, policies, and special operating procedures

  • Operations: Utilization of crime analysis information for directed patrol planning and implementations and evaluation; safety and tactical training, problem identification, verification, and process resolution.

  • Interpersonal communications

  • Career and professional development and performance evaluations.


Operations dispatch and emergency communications

Operations: Dispatch and Emergency Communications

  • Call intake screening

  • Call prioritization

  • Call diversion

  • Evaluation

    • Misclassification

    • Clearance coding

  • Measuring police response time

    • Response-related arrests

    • Witness availability, citizen injury, citizen satisfaction


Operations managing criminal investigations mci

Operations: Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI)

  • Case intake and administrative screening/sorting to determine assignment and establish case priorities (including review of early case closure recommendations)

  • Assignment

    • objective/rationale/criteria/ PURPOSE regarding assignment, e.g., individual, team, “kickback,” patrol, or detective(s)

    • Is rationale regarding assignment antithetical to objective desired?

    • Is it “take a number” like a New York deli?


Operations managing criminal investigations mci cont

Operations: Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI) - Cont.

  • The “GET” system.

  • Review (relative to case priority) and structured feedback regarding progress and impediments.

  • Evaluation for possible reassignment, suspension, case preparation for filing, trial, etc.

  • Prosecutorial liaison

  • Early case closure


Crime analysis goals

Crime Analysis Goals

  • Types of crime analysis (including brief historicity)

    • Tactical

    • Link

    • Taxonomical (cold, unsolved cases); coroner’s office

    • Trend/exception, etc.

    • Hot sheet

    • Wanted persons

    • Known offenders


Crime analysis goals cont

Crime Analysis Goals - Cont.

  • Solvability

    • Elements

    • Quantifying

  • Evaluation

    • Tactical action plans (TAPS)

    • “Trash-can” surveys


Crime analysis goals cont1

Crime Analysis Goals - Cont.

  • Products

    • Crime analysis information bulletin

    • Crime analysis intelligence bulletin

    • Crime analysis pattern alert bulletin

    • Special bulletins regarding theft of unique property, special events, fugitives, etc.

    • Hot sheets

    • Field interview recaps

    • Exception reports


Operations analysis

Operations Analysis

  • Staffing/deployment

  • Beat design and reconfiguration

  • Where did the offense occur?

  • Where were officers dispatched?

  • Operations Calendar


Traffic analysis

Traffic Analysis

  • Minor property damage/no injury

  • Minor property damage/minor injury

  • Major property/minor injury

  • Major property/injury with hospital transport with treatment and release

  • Serious injury with hospital stay required

  • Autos collision fatality

  • Pedestrian (minor injury, serious injury, fatality)


Crime analysis administration

Crime Analysis Administration

  • Offense form and format

  • State/regional considerations

  • Standardized offense report to identify state-wide patterns/problems


Data needs and elements internal

Data Needs and Elements: Internal

  • Offense reports and investigative supplements

  • Arrest/blotter/booking records

  • Dispatch records

  • Traffic accident reports and citations

  • Field interview, i.e., investigation/interrogation/ observation reports

  • Confidential informants

  • Sworn and civilian “in-house” personnel, e.g., patrol officers, records clerks, criminalists, crime analysts, detectives, etc.


Data needs and elements external

Data Needs and Elements: External

  • NCIC

  • TCIC

  • Regional PIN

  • Intelligence networks and data banks

  • Crime Stoppers

  • Other local law enforcement including county, state, and federal agencies.

  • Local medical examiner(s) and personnel from the district attorney’s office; jail and correctional employees


Data needs and elements external cont

Data Needs and Elements: External - Cont.

  • Tracking court “no-shows”

  • Bail bondsmen

  • Citizens and citizen groups


Centralized and decentralized crime analysis operations

Centralized and Decentralized Crime Analysis Operations

  • Centralized, City Wide: Suspect specialists and area generalists

  • Decentralized, Neighborhood: Area specialists and suspect generalists


Tactical crime analysis process

Tactical Crime Analysis Process

  • Collection

  • Analysis

  • Collation

    • serial crime matrix

    • external and extraneous source materials

  • Synthesis

  • Dissemination

  • Feedback and evaluation


Crime analysis to support community oriented policing

Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing

  • Cultivating positive relationships through open communications, information, and reciprocity, e.g., “PIP,” etc.

  • Identifying, defining, and verifying problems; constructing a process (e.g., contracts)


Crime analysis to support community oriented policing cont

Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing -Cont.

  • Articulating rules, roles, and responsibilities in working with citizens and citizen groups to obtain credible and conscientious involvement and participation

    • What citizens, and what groups?


Crime analysis to support community oriented policing cont1

Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing -Cont.

  • What’s in “it” for them? Why should citizens work with local authorities?

    • Citizens police academy

    • Citizens graduate police academy

    • The role of the Field Training Officer (FTO) program in relationship to Community-Problem and Neighborhood-Oriented policing efforts

  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)


  • Tactical operations based on crime analysis

    Tactical Operations based on Crime Analysis

    • Electronic and physical surveillance

    • Target hardening

    • Channeling

    • Saturation

    • Stake-outs

    • Zero-tolerance

    • Directed patrol

    • Intelligence monitoring

    • Covert patrol

    • Decoy operations


    Tactical operations based on crime analysis cont

    Tactical Operations based on Crime Analysis -Cont.

    • TRAP

      • Design

      • Implementation

      • Simulation

      • Evaluation

    • “Auto-Dial,” the Oxnard Model


    Crimes against children

    Crimes Against Children

    • Identify external threats, i.e., possible suspects that prey on children

      • Parole records

      • Probation records

      • Mechanism to identify and tract chronic, repeat sexual offenders

    • Problematic families

      • Runaways

      • Throw-a-ways


    Crimes against children cont

    Crimes Against Children -Cont.

    • Child exploitation

      • Prostitution

      • Adult clubs

      • Pornography


    Intra inter multi agency and community support and organization

    Intra/inter/multi-Agency and Community Support and Organization

    • Law enforcement INTRA-AGENCIES

    • Community INTER-AGENCIES

      • Courts (i.e., criminal, juvenile, family, etc.)

      • Prosecutors

      • Probation, parole, corrections

      • Welfare and health care, including youth/juvenile services, Child Protective Services (CPS), foster homes, Day Care, etc.


    Intra inter multi agency and community support and organization cont

    Intra/inter/multi-Agency and Community Support and Organization -Cont.

    • Schools

    • Medical community (ER) and the medical examiner

    • Sheriff’s Office/Police Department

    • Victim’s services, e.g., rape crisis, etc.

    • ___________________________


    Measuring police effectiveness discussion

    “Measuring Police Effectiveness”Discussion


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