Managing individual differences behavior
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 28

Managing Individual Differences & Behavior PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 302 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Managing Individual Differences & Behavior. Supervising People as People. First law of human behavior: “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”. Perception. Process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment

Download Presentation

Managing Individual Differences & Behavior

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Managing individual differences behavior

Managing Individual Differences & Behavior

Supervising People as People


Managing individual differences behavior

  • First law of human behavior:

    • “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”


Perception

Perception

  • Process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment

  • Individuals organize and interpret information from their environments using perceptual filters

    • personality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differences

  • Objective vs. perceived realities


Perception1

Perception

  • People perceive the world uniquely

  • Differences in perceptions can cause problems

    • Communication

    • Conflict

    • Motivation

    • Judgment

    • Decision Making


Object perception

Object Perception


Social perception

Social Perception

How we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traits

Similar to object perception, but

  • People are more dynamic than objects

  • We’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior


Causal attribution

Causal Attribution

Why did they do that?

  • internal causes

    • traits

    • skills

    • abilities

  • external causes

    • situational constraints


Errors biases in social perception

Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Fundamental Attribution Error

    • The tendency to attribute others' bad performance to internal causes &

    • Attribute their good performance to external causes

  • Self-serving bias

    • attribute successes to ourselves - internal

    • attribute failures to the environment – external


Distortions in perception

Distortions in Perception

  • Review PA

    • Halo, contrast, Primacy/recency etc.

  • Selective perception

    • filter out information that is discomforting, that seems irrelevant, or that contradicts one’s beliefs or expectations

  • Closure

    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing

    • Assume what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know


Distortions in perception1

Distortions in Perception

  • Stereotyping

    • tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs

    • Sex-role, age, race/ethnicity


Self fulfilling prophecy

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

  • Self-Fulfilling prophecy

    • the phenomenon in which people’s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true

    • Also called the Pygmalion effect


Perception implications

Perception Implications

  • Increase the accuracy of your own perceptions.

    • Conscious information processing

    • Ask yourself about the bias

    • Reality testing—Check your assumptions

      • Ask questions (and let them answer)

      • Look for information that disconfirms your beliefs

      • 360 feedback

      • Know your people


Perception implications1

Perception Implications

  • Leaders must be attuned to:

    • The perceived realities and attributions of their team

    • The fact that perceived and objective realities may not mesh

    • The idea that people respond to the perceived reality

  • Managers must eliminate differences between employees’ perceived and objective reality.

  • Have high (yet realistic) expectations


Personality

Personality

Relatively stable, unique set of traits and attributes that that give a person his/her identity and determine his/her preferences and behavior.

Why consider personality?


The big five canoe conscientiousness

THE “BIG FIVE” (CANOE):Conscientiousness

  • The degree to which a person is dependable, responsible, thorough, perseverant

  • Most consistent personality predictor of performance

  • Also predicts lack of problem behavior


The big five agreeableness

THE “BIG FIVE”: Agreeableness

  • The extent to which a person is polite, good natured, flexible, cooperative, trusting.

  • May predict job performance in jobs…


The big five neuroticism emotional stability

THE “BIG FIVE”:Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)

  • The degree to which a person is anxious, depressed, moody, emotionally unstable, temperamental.

  • May predict job performance in what type of jobs?


The big five openness

THE “BIG FIVE”: Openness

  • The degree to which a person is imaginative, curious, flexible, open to change.

  • May predict job performance where?


The big five extraversion

THE “BIG FIVE”: Extraversion

  • The degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, ambitious.

  • May predict job performance in what type of jobs?


Self esteem

SELF-ESTEEM

  • How perceive themselves overall: abilities, competencies, and effectiveness

  • High self esteem is related to higher performance, commitment, loyalty, and longevity.

  • What can managers do to foster high self esteem?


Self efficacy

SELF-EFFICACY

  • Belief in one’s ability to do a task

  • Learned helplessness


Fostering self esteem self efficacy

FOSTERING SELF-ESTEEM & Self EFFICACY


Locus of control

LOCUS OF CONTROL

  • How much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts.

    • Internal

    • External

  • Why is locus of control important?

    • Response to supervision and structure?

    • Satisfaction?

    • Performance?

    • Incentive Systems?

  • How might a manager influence employees’ locus of control?


Locus of control1

LOCUS OF CONTROL


Emotional intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

  • Ability to detect, express, and manage emotion in oneself and others.

Other

(Social Competence)

Self

(Personal Competence)

Recognition

of emotions

Regulation

of emotions


Emotional intelligence1

Emotional Intelligence

  • Some suggest that EI is the best predictor of work success

  • It’s “learnable”

  • It’s related to communication, motivation (self and others), effective leadership

    (Hendrie Weisinger, “Emotional Intelligence at Work” (Jossey-Bass, 1998).


  • Login