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IT Systems In and Out EN230-1. Justin Champion C208 – 3273 www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1. IT Systems. Contents What is I/O Motherboards Types of I/O. IT Systems. I/O ?? Stands for Input/Output

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IT SystemsIn and OutEN230-1

Justin Champion

C208 – 3273

www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1


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IT Systems

  • Contents

    • What is I/O

    • Motherboards

    • Types of I/O


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IT Systems

  • I/O ??

    • Stands for Input/Output

      • A large number of devices allow us to send information into the processor and receive it afterwards

        • Hard Disks

        • Ram

        • CD-Writers

        • Keyboards

        • Printers

        • Monitors

        • Etc, etc


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IT Systems

  • A number of standards are defined for I/O

    • Standards are required so that any device which meets that standard can communicate with any other device

      • USB

      • SCSI

      • RAM (Discussed last week)

      • IDE

      • Serial

      • Parallel

      • FireWire


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IT Systems

  • These standards are being used to get information to the processor

    • Once at the processor this information can then be acted upon.

    • To allow all of these devices to communicate with the processor they must be connected together

    • The motherboard allows all of the devices to connect together for communications


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IT Systems

  • Motherboard

    • This is a integrated circuit which allows circuits to be developed between all of the devices attached


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IT Systems

  • Bus?

    • The bus is the way that data is moved around the motherboard

      • Each part communicates with the System bus


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IT Systems

  • System Bus consists of

    • Data Bus

      • The data that is transferred at once

      • The bigger the more information which can be transferred in one cycle

    • Control Bus

      • Carries control signal so that all devices now the current operation state

    • Address Bus

      • Indicates where the data is intended for

      • The bigger the more device that can be attached


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IT Systems

  • Data Bus

    • The data bus for efficiency should be able to carry the maximum amount of data the processor can deal with

      • 8088

      • 80286

        • 24 Bit address bus, maximum 16Mb of memory

      • 80386 & 80486

        • 32 Address Bus, 4 Gb of memory

      • Intel Itanium - 64 bit

        • 64 Address Bus, Sixteen exabytes ???


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IT Systems

  • Storage Memory Sizes

    • Bit – 0 or 1

    • Byte – 8 * bits

    • KiloByte – 1024 * Bytes

    • MegaByte - 1024 * Kilobytes

    • GigaByte - 1024 * MegaByte

    • TeraByte - 1024* GigaByte

    • Petayte - 1024* TeraByte

    • Exabyte - 1024* PetaByte

    • ZettaByte - 1024* ExaByte

    • YottaByte - 1024* ZetaByte or 1024 bytes


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IT Systems

  • BIOS

    • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)

      • This is a piece of software which is written into the motherboard of your PC

        • It has just the knowledge to carry out a number of actions before handing over to the operating system

        • Power on Self Test (POST)

          • Checks all components are working correctly

        • Loads controls for

          • Keyboard

          • Disk drives (hard disk and floppy)

          • Serial communications

          • VGA basic display


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IT Systems

  • Hard Disc

    • The primary permanent storage area for a PC

      • A hard disc operates by changing the magnetic properties of the surface of a disc

        • The magnetic poles are changed in one bit to indicate either a 0 or a 1

        • A arm is then moved across the platter which contains the bits to read back or write to a specific part of the hard disc

        • The platter is made up of sectors and tracks

        • These are then made up into clusters

          • The size of the cluster depends on the OS

computer.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk3.htm, 2003


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IT Systems

  • Hard Disc

    • Cluster

      • When you write data to a cluster the entire cluster is used

        • Even if the file does not fill the cluster

        • This can be seen in this picture from win2000

          • File size and size on disc


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IDE

Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Common speeds are

  • UDMA33 = 33 Mbps

  • UDMA100 = 100 Mbps

  • IDE interfaces

    • Maximum of 2 devices per controller

    • These drives are cheap and mass produced

    • Maximum cable length of 48cm

    • Higher system costs as the controller requires CPU time

    • Are useful all uses with the exception of very intensive disk usage


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    SCSI

    • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

      • Commonly considered to be the faster drives

        • Fastest specification is

          • Ultra 3 SCSI 240 Mbps, but this is not widely available

        • Most SCSI drives are similar in speed to IDE

      • Interface

        • Can cope with 8 devices attached to it

        • Can buffer instruction sent to the device

        • Very low CPU overhead for instructions typically 5%

        • Maximum cable length of 12 Metres

      • These drives are expensive!

        • Mostly used today on high end servers, where a number of drives needs to be connected at any time


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    Serial

    • Serial

      • Is the sending of one bit of data at a time

        • This gives the advantage of only one cable being required for transmission

        • They are able to send duplex data

          • Duplex indicates that data can be sent and received at the same time.

        • This is carried out by transmitting on a different cable than receiving upon

          • Pin 2 transmits data and pin 3 receives data

      • Standard serial ports can received data at 115 Kbps (using the RS232 standard)


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    Serial

    9 Pin serial port


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    Serial

    • Serial

      • Traditional serial connection is through RS-232 and its successors

      • Newer standards are available

        • RS-442

          • Allows faster speeds and longer connection cables, 4000 ft at 100 Kbps or a maximum speed of 1.5 Mbps with a shorter cable

        • RS-485

          • Allows up to 16 devices daisy chained together to communicate

          • Similar speeds but this medium is shared like Ethernet


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    Serial

    • Serial

      • Traditionally used for Modem communications

      • Still widely used a lot of handheld devices use serial communications ports.


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    Serial

    • Parallel – IEEE 1284 standards

      • Unlike serial uses 8 wires at once

        • This allows 1 byte at a time to sent over the cable

      • Standard Parallel Port (SPP)

        • 100 Kbps

      • Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP)

        • 500Kbps to 2 Mbps


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    Serial & Parallel

    • Parallel devices current uses

      • Printers

      • External Zip drives

      • External CD drives

      • Data Transfers


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    Universal Serial Bus (USB)

    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

      • Standards

        • 1.0 – 12 Mbps

        • 2.0 – 480 Mbps

      • Maximum of 127 devices daisy chained together

        • All share a single interrupt (IRQ)

      • These devices can supply a small amount of electricity

        • 500 Milliamps at 5 volts

      • Now available for all operating systems

        • Including Linux


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    Universal Serial Bus (USB)

    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

      • Devices are

        • Hot swappable

        • Can be put to sleep

      • Data can be transferred in different methods

        • Interrupt based

          • Small amounts of data to be transferred

        • Bulk

          • Large amounts of data like a scanner

        • Isochronous

          • Continuous data transfer like a web cam

      • Data transfer rates are guaranteed for the devices


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    Firewire

    • IEEE-1394

      • High-speed serial bus, originally called Firewire, developed by Apple in 1995

        • I-link used by Sony

      • Offers data rates of 100 - 400 Mbps

        • Allows a maximum 63 nodes to be connected

        • A maximum of 72 metres of cable between the host and the device (using a daisy chain)

        • The cabling can provide the power to the device if required

          • 40 volts with 1.5 amps maximum

      • Mainly used for digital video transfer where this throughput is required


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    IT Systems

    • Summary of what we have discussed

      • Motherboard

        • Processor types

      • I/O Types

        • Hard disc

        • USB

        • Serial

        • FireWire


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