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Introduction to Plants. Mrs. M. Rightler. Earliest Plants. Algae Phytoplankton Lived in the sea. Problem Drying Out Making Food Reproduction Gravity & Support Getting water & nutrients. Solution Waxy cuticle, stomata Formed leaves Develops spores & seeds Bark (cork) & vessels

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introduction to plants

Introduction to Plants

Mrs. M. Rightler

earliest plants
Earliest Plants
  • Algae
  • Phytoplankton
  • Lived in the sea
problems with life on land
Problem

Drying Out

Making Food

Reproduction

Gravity & Support

Getting water & nutrients

Solution

Waxy cuticle, stomata

Formed leaves

Develops spores & seeds

Bark (cork) & vessels

Roots & vessels

Problems with life on land
types of plants
Types of Plants
  • Avascular
    • Bryophytes
    • nonseed plants
  • Tracheophytes
    • vessels for transport and support
mosses liverworts the bryophytes
Mosses & Liverworts: The Bryophytes
  • First land plants
  • AVASCULAR = very small
  • 500 m.y.a.
  • Must grow in moist environments
  • Used for fuel (peat)
reproduction in bryophytes
Reproduction in Bryophytes
  • Mosses have a protonema (liverworts do not)
  • Sexual reproduction
    • Antheridium – makes sperm
    • Archaegonium – makes eggs
  • Asexual reproduction
    • Fragmentation
    • Formation of gemmae
tracheophytes
Tracheophytes
  • Vessels
    • XYLEM = transports water & dissolved minerals from roots to leaves
    • PHLOEM = transports sugars from leaves to rest of plant
  • Spores or seeds for reproduction
club mosses lycophyta
Club Mosses (Lycophyta)
  • Leaves produce spores
    • Strobilus = spore-bearing leaves
    • Prothallus = produces antheridia & archaegonia
horsetails sphenophyta
Horsetails (Sphenophyta)
  • Jointed stems
  • Reproduction similar to club moss
ferns pterophyta
Ferns (Pterophyta)
  • 400 m.y.a.
  • Dominant form = sporophyte
  • Structure
    • Rhizome = underground stem
    • Fronds = leaves
    • Sori = store spores on underside of fronds
gymnosperms
Gymnosperms
  • Gymno = “naked” Sperm = “seed”
  • First plants to produce seeds
    • No flowers
    • No fruit
why make seeds
Why Make Seeds?
  • Has own food supply
  • Protective coat against harsh conditions
  • Some are designed for travel to new areas
sporophytes produce
Sporophytes produce:
  • MICROSPORE
    • Produce male gametophyte
    • Produce pollen
  • MEGASPORE
    • Produce female gametophyte
    • Produce ovule (makes archaegonia with egg cells)
gymnosperm reproduction
Gymnosperm Reproduction
  • Pollen grains carried by wind
  • Land on ovule, develop pollen tube
  • Sperm move through tube to fertilize egg
    • Fertilized egg = ZYGOTE
    • EMBRYO = young, diploid sporophyte plant
    • COTYLEDONS = food storage for embryo, become first leaves
why pollen instead of spores
Why Pollen Instead of Spores?
  • Plant can live in very dry areas
  • Fertilization does not require water
  • Pollen has protective coat and food supply for sperm
why ovules instead of archaegonia
Why Ovules Instead of Archaegonia?
  • Protective tissues prevent drying out
  • Ovule holds archaegonia and protects eggs from elements
minor gymnosperm groups
Minor Gymnosperm Groups
  • Cycadophyta (1st in Triassic Era)
  • Ginkgophyta
    • Only one species today Ginkgo biloba
    • Most lived 200 m.y.a.
  • Gnetophyta – only three genera
    • Gnetum – house plants
    • Ephedra – weight loss, allergies & asthma
    • Welwitschia
coniferophyta largest group
Coniferophyta (largest group)
  • Needle or scale-like leaves
  • Bear seeds in woody cones
  • Can live in very cold climates
  • Most are evergreens
  • Have wood
    • Made of thick-walled vessels (TRACHEIDS)
    • Tracheids are xylem
angiosperms
Angiosperms
  • Angio – “flower” Sperm – “seed”
  • Extremely diverse
  • All have seeds enclosed in fruit
cambium
Cambium
  • Any growth tissue in plants
  • Types of cambium
    • Vascular = produces xylem & phloem
    • Cork = produces cork (bark)
overall structures 121
Overall Structures [121]
  • Roots
  • Stems
  • Leaves
  • Flowers
roots 124
Roots [124]
  • Absorb water & nutrients
  • Hold plant in place
  • Root types:
    • Fibrous
    • Tap
    • Prop
    • Aerial
stems 123
Stems [123]
  • Support leaves & flowers
  • Sometimes photosynthesis
  • Transport (contain xylem & phloem)
  • Types
    • herbaceous – green & flexible
    • Woody – stiff, have cork layer, usually brown
leaves 119
Leaves [119]
  • Cuticle = protection
  • Stomata = gas exchange, water loss (transpiration)
  • Epidermis = protection, color
  • Mesophyll
    • Palisade = most PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    • Spongy = Vascular bundles run through it
flowers 131
Flowers [131]
  • Pistils = female reproductive structures
  • Stamens = male reproductive structures
  • Complete flowers
    • Have petals & sepals
    • Have male and female parts
  • Incomplete flowers = missing one or more parts
types of angiosperms 115
Monocots

mono = “one”

cot = “seed leaf”

Approx. 60,000 species

Flowers = multiples of 3

Leaf veins parallel

Dicots

di = “two”

cot = “seed leaf”

Approx. 170,000 species

Flowers = multiples of 4 or 5

Leaf veins branching

Types of Angiosperms [115]
plant tropisms
Plant Tropisms
  • Tropism = plant response to external stimulus
    • Positive: plant moves towardstimulus
    • Negative: plant moves away from stimulus
  • Types:
    • Phototropism = light
    • Gravitropism = gravity
    • Thigmotropism = touch

(nastic movement – direction does not matter)

plant hormones
Plant Hormones
  • Hormone – chemical produced in one part of an organism that has an effect on a different part of the organism
  • Types
    • Auxins – regulate growth
    • Gibberellins – speeds growth, germination
    • Abscisic acid – dormancy, close stomata, stress
    • Ethylene – ripens fruit
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