Introduction to clinical nutrition
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Introduction to Clinical Nutrition. NFSC 370 D. Bellis McCafferty. Illness. Example : Cancer. Altered Digestion and Absorption. Altered Nutrient Excretion. Altered Food Intake. Altered Metabolism.

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Introduction to clinical nutrition l.jpg

Introduction to Clinical Nutrition

NFSC 370

D. Bellis McCafferty


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Illness

Example : Cancer

Altered Digestion and Absorption

Altered Nutrient Excretion

Altered Food Intake

Altered Metabolism

Examples: Loss of appetite, altered food likes/dislikes, difficulty chewing and swallowing, reduced saliva secretion

Examples: radiation enteritis, surgical resection of GI tract, diarrhea

Example: increased energy needs due to altered energy use in cancer

Examples: fecal loss of fat-soluble vitamins and calcium in clients with cancers that affect enzyme secretion or bile salt production

Malnutrition


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Clinical Nutrition(Medical Nutrition Therapy)

Purpose

  • To achieve or maintain good nutritional status.

    American Dietetic Association

  • Professional organization representing Registered Dietitians (RD) and Dietetic Technicians (DTR)


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Patient Care: Team Approach(Interdisciplinary)

  • Physician

  • Registered Dietitian

  • Registered Nurse, Licensed Vocational Nurse, Certified Nursing Assistant

  • Pharmacist

  • Speech Therapist

  • Occupational Therapist

  • Social Worker


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The Nutrition Care Process

  • Identifying and meeting a person’s nutrient and nutrition education needs. Five steps:

    1.AssessAssessment of nutritional status

    2.AnalyzeAnalyze assessment data to determine nutrient requirements

    3.DevelopDevelop a nutrition care plan to meet patient’s nutrient and education needs.

    4.Implement: Implement care plan

    5.Evaluate: Evaluate effectiveness of care plan: ongoing follow-up, reassessment, and modification of care plan.


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THE PATIENT SHOULD BE AN ACTIVE PARTICIPANT IN THE CARE PROCESS!


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Assessing Nutritional Status

  • Historical Information

  • Physical Examination

  • Anthropometric Data

  • Laboratory Analyses


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Historical Information

  • Health History (medical history) - current and past health status

    • diseases/ risk factors for disease

    • appetite/food intake

    • conditions affecting digestion, absorption, utilization, & excretion of nutrients

    • emotional and mental health


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Historical Information

  • Drug History

    • prescription & OTC meds

    • illicit drugs

    • nutrient supplements, HERBS and other “alternative” or homeopathic substances

    • multiple meds (who’s at risk?)

      Meds can alter intake, absorption, metabolism, etc.

      Foods can alter absorption, metabolism, & excretion of meds.


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Historical Information

  • Socioeconomic History - factors that affect one’s ability to purchase, prepare, & store food, as well as factors that affect food choices themselves.

    • Food availability (know local crops/produce)

    • occupation/income/education level

    • ethnicity/religious affiliations

    • kitchen facilities

    • transportation

    • personal mobility (ability to ambulate)

    • number of people in the household


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Historical Information

  • Diet History—analyzing eating habits, food intake, lifestyle, so that you can set individualized, attainable goals.

    • Amount of food taken in

    • Adequacy of intake – omission of foods/food groups

    • Frequency of eating out

    • IV fluids

    • Appetite

    • Restrictive/fad diets

    • Variety of foods

    • Supplements (overlaps)


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Historical Information

  • Tools for taking a diet hx:

    • 24 hour recall

    • Usual intake – can find trends, such as breakfast/snacks

    • Food Frequency Questionnaire/Checklist

    • Food Records

    • Observing food intake

  • Analysis of Food Intake Data

  • INDIVIDUAL NEEDS FOR NUTRIENTS VARIES


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Assessing Nutritional Status

  • Historical Information

  • Physical Examination

  • Anthropometric Data

  • Laboratory Analyses


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Physical Examination: “A picture is worth a thousand words.”

  • weight status

  • mobility

  • confusion

  • signs of nutrient deficiencies/malnutrition

    • esp. hair, skin, GI tract including mouth and tongue

  • Fluid Balance (dehydration/fluid retention)


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Physical Examination: “A picture is worth a thousand words.”

  • Limitations of Physical Findings

    • Depends on assessor!

    • Many physical signs are nonspecific: ie. cracked lips from sun/windburn vs. from malnutrition, dehydration…


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Assessing Nutritional Status words.”

  • Historical Information

  • Physical Examination

  • Anthropometric Data

  • Laboratory Analyses


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Anthropometric Data - words.”physical measurement of the body

anthropos = human metric = measure

  • Indirect assessment of body composition and development

  • Used in Nutrition Assessment:

    • Measures using height and weight

    • Measures of body composition (fat vs. lean tissue)

    • Functional Measures


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures Using Height and Weight

BMI Body Mass Index

wt (kg)

ht (cm)2

or

wt (lb) X 705

ht (inches) 2


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures Using Height and Weight

  • 18.5-24.9

  • 25+

  • 30+

  • Pros:

    • many studies have identified the health risks associated with a wide range of BMIs

    • easy to look up on chart

    • screening tool


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures Using Height and Weight

  • Cons: BMI can misclassify up to one out of four people.

    • Does not account for fat distribution

    • Doesn’t account for LBM - may misclassify frail/sedentary or very muscular people

      Met Life Insurance weight-for- height tables

    • Weights based on lowest mortality


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Example: Height & Weight Table For Women words.”

Feet Inches SmallFrame MediumFrame LargeFrame

5' 1" 106-118 115-129 125-140

5' 2" 108-121 118-132 128-143

5' 3" 111-124 121-135 131-147

5' 4" 114-127 124-138 134-151

5' 5" 117-130 127-141 137-155

5' 6" 120-133 130-144 140-159

5' 7" 123-136 133-147 143-163

5' 8" 126-139 136-150 146-167

5' 9" 129-142 139-153 155-176

Weights at ages 25-59 based on lowest mortality. Weight in pounds according to frame (in indoor clothing weighing 3 lbs.; shoes with 1" heels)


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures Using Height and Weight

Assessing “Ideal Body Weight”

Hamwi Equation:

  • Females: 100# for first 5’ of height, plus 5# per inch over five feet

  • Males: 106# for first 5’ of height, plus 6# per inch over five feet

  • +/- 10% to calculate a range

    (for those under 5’ tall, subtract 2 lb. per inch under 5’)

    ** Amputations, immobility:


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7% words.”

Whole arm 6.5%

43%

Below elbow 3%

Hand 1%

Whole leg 18.5%

Above knee 13%

Below knee 6%

Foot 1.8%


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Interpretation words.”

%IBW

Actual (present) weight X 100 = %IBW

IBW

  • example: 5’6” woman weighs 160#. What is her % IBW?

  • 160  130 = 123%


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Interpreting % IBW words.”

 200% IBW = morbidly obese (or 100# over IBW)

 120 % (130%) = obese

110 - 120 = overweight

90 - 109 = normal

80 - 89 = mildly compromised nutrition status (mild malnutrition)

70-79 = moderate

< 70% = severe


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures Using Height and Weight

  • Assessing “Usual Body Weight”

    Actual (present) weight X 100 = % UBW

    UBW

  • example: 110# female lost 10# over past month

  • 110/120 x 100 = 91.6% UBW, or loss of about 8%


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Interpreting % UBW words.”

85-90% mild

75-84% moderate

<75% severe

OR wt. change (unintentional weight loss)

mild moderate severe

1 week 1-2% >2

1 month 5 >5

3 months 7.5 >7.5

6 months 10 10-15 >15


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures of Body Composition (fat vs. lean tissue)

Body Fat Measurements

  • fatfold (skinfold)

  • waist-to-hip ratios

  • hydrodensitometry (hydrostatic weighing)

  • bioelectrical impedance


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Anthropometric Data words.”Measures of Body Composition

Midarm muscle circumference – indirectly measures protein status by estimating arm muscle mass.

  • Midarm circumference and triceps fatfold

  • plug into an equation:

    mmc (cm) = mc (cm) - [.314 x triceps fatfold (mm)]


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Anthropometric Data words.”Functional Measures of Nutrition Status

Hand Grip Strength

  • Dynamometer

  • Not appropriate w/arthritis/muscular disorders


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Interpreting Measurements words.”

  • Requires caution

  • Interpreting Measurements

    • Sometimes difficult to measure 2’ mobility problems, injury, loose, hanging skin

    • Hydration/dehydration affects weight, fatfolds, and MAMC

    • Standards used are controversial


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Summing Up words.”

  • Anthropometric measures provide valuable information regarding body wt. and composition

  • Do not reflect nutrition status alone

  • Accuracy requires on the skill of the assessor

  • Caution interpreting results


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Assessing Nutritional Status words.”

  • Historical Information

  • Physical Examination

  • Anthropometric Data

  • Laboratory Analyses


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Laboratory Analyses words.”

  • Help determine what’s happening on the inside of the body

  • Automated measurements of several blood components from a single blood sample

  • serum -

  • plasma -


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Laboratory Analyses words.”

Interpreting Biochemical Tests

  • Many can be skewed with fluid retention or dehydration.

  • Over-hydration can cause _____ numbers

  • Dehydration can cause ______ numbers

  • These are clues that anthropometrics are probably skewed as well.


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Overhydrated = diluted blood words.”

Dehydrated = concentrated blood

Normal hydration

1 dl blood

10 mg/dl

5 mg/dl

20 mg/dl


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Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

  • Somatic proteins - physical work

  • Serum/visceral proteins (circulating proteins & proteins found in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and heart)

    maintain fluid balance

    synthesize enzymes and hormones

    mount immune response

    heal wounds

  • Therefore, protein status is an indicator of immune response.


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Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

  • Synthesized in the liver

    • May reflect liver function

    • Measurements skewed if liver diseased

  • Remember, when kcals are inadequate, protein is used to make glucose.


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Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

Serum Albumin:

  • >50% total serum protein

  • Helps maintain fluid and lyte balance

  • Transports many nutrients, hormones, drugs, etc.

  • Used as indicator of protein status (visc. protein stores)

  • Half life ___________

    3.5-5.0 = adequate

    2.8-3.4 = mildly depleted

    2.1- 2.7 = moderately depleted

    <2.1 = severely depleted visceral protein stores


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Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

Problems with albumin:

  • not very sensitive, long half life

  •  levels reflect prolonged depletion, but

  • normal levels may not reflect short term changes in nutritional status.

  • Levels  :

  • Remember, number affected by plasma volume, so  in over-hydration and  in dehydration.


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

    Serum Transferrin

    = (TIBC x 0.76) + 18

    • Shorter half-life ____________

    • Transports iron:

    • If Fe deficiency present, doesn’t accurately reflect protein status

    • Transferrin levels RISE with Fe deficiency! Inverse relationship

    •  levels may indicate __________________

    •  levels may indicate __________________


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

    • Levels  :

    • Levels  :

      Normal: >200 mg/dl

      Mild 150-200 mg/dl

      Moderate 100-149 mg/dl

      Severe <100 mg/dl


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

    Prealbumin (thyroxine-binding prealbuin or transthyretin TTHY)

    • Being used more: some facilities using in place of albumin

    • Half life: ______________

    • Sensitive indicator of protein status

    • Good indicator of pt. response to MNT

    •  $$ to run than albumin


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

    Prealbumin

    • Levels  :

    • Levels  :

      Normal: 15-40 mg/dl

      Mild: 10-15 mg/dl

      Moderate: 5-10 mg/dl

      Severe: <5 mg/dl


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Protein Status

    Nitrogen Balance Studies

    (usually only used in severe metabolic stress)

    1. Track the patient’s UUN (Urinary Urea Nitrogen)

    2. 24 hour record of protein intake

    3. Plug into nitrogen balance equation:

    N balance (g) = protein intake - (UUN + 4)

    6.25


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    Remember how this works? words.”

    Amino Acids

    C-C-N

    C-C-N

    Urea (BUN)

    N-C-N

    Excreted via kidneys

    (UUN)


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    N balance (g) = words.” protein intake - (UUN + 4)

    6.25

    • “4” represents non-urea N+ lost in feces, urine, skin, and respiration

    • every 6.25 grams of protein contains 1 gram of nitrogen

      0 or - =

      + =

    • Goal for repletion :


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Biochemical Tests Of Immune Function

    • Total WBCs

    • Normal: 5,000-10,000/mm3

    • Possible critical values: <2500 or >30,000/mm3

    • High vs. low values?

    • Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC)

      Measured from % lymphocytes and total WBC count

      Equation: TLC = % lymphocytes X Total WBC/mm3

      Normal: >1500 mm3

      Mild: 1200 - 1500

      Moderate: 800-1199

      Severe: <800

      What do unusually high numbers indicate?


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Hematological Assessment – looking at blood cells and detecting anemias

    Hematology Assessment – morphology & physiology of blood cells. Helps detect the presence of anemias.

    • Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb)

      • main functional constituent of the RBC, serving as the oxygen-carrying protein

      •  level may indicate depleted iron stores BUT

        • 12-16 g/dl females

          14-18 g/dl males


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Hematological Assessment

    • Hematocrit (Hct) – % of RBCs in the total blood volume.

      • Commonly used to diagnose Fe def., but also inconclusive

      •  values indicate incomplete Hgb formation, which is manifested by ____________, ______________ RBCs

        Males: 42%-52%

        Females: 37%-47%


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Hematological Assessment

    • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) - the average volume (size) of a single RBC.

      •  levels:

      •  levels:

        normal: 80-95m3


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    Anemias: words.”

    • Normocytic, normochromic anemia:

      • Iron def detected early (RBCs)

    • Microcytic hypochromic:

      • Fe-def detected late (or lead poisoning)

    • Microcytic, normochromic:

      • Renal disease (2’ loss of EPO)

    • Macrocytic, normochromic:

      • B12 or folate def (or chemo)


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Other Labs Used in Nutrition Assessment

    • Glucose

      • Indicates glucose tolerance/diabetes.

      • Levels  2° _______________, pancreatitis, pancreatic CA, & with use of steroids (solumedrol and prednisone),caffeine, antidepressants and several other drugs.

      • Normal Fasting:


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    Amino Acids words.”

    C-C-N

    C-C-N

    Urea (BUN)

    N-C-N

    Excreted via kidneys

    (UUN)

    • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

      • Major end product of protein metabolism

      • Levels  with impaired ____________ function

      • Also  with:


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Other Labs Used in Nutrition Assessment

    • Creatinine (blood)

      • Breakdown product of phosphocreatine, present in skeletal muscle

      • Daily production of creatine, (and thus creatinine) depends on muscle mass

      • Creatinine is excreted in ________ on a daily basis.

      • If _________ function is impaired, Creatinine levels will rise (decreased clearance).


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    Laboratory Analyses: words.”Other Labs Used in Nutrition Assessment

    • Sodium (Na+)

      • Indicator of hydration level. Look at Na+ level to evaluate other labs.

      • Overhydration -

      • Dehydration -

    • eg. albumin


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