An Overview of Building Fire
Download
1 / 31

Introduction - General - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 330 Views
  • Updated On :

An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning. presented to Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62 by Steve Williams, P.E. | Brian Olsen, P.E. Introduction - General. Over 35 years of design experience Support staff of 350 Local Office

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction - General' - Mia_John


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

An Overview of Building Fire andSmoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning

presented to

Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62by

Steve Williams, P.E. | Brian Olsen, P.E.


Introduction general l.jpg
Introduction - General

  • Over 35 years of design experience

  • Support staff of 350

  • Local Office

  • Wide variety of project types

  • #1 Retail firm in U.S.

  • (based on number of projects and square footage

  • Retail Construction Magazine-2006)

  • Specialty division of Henderson Engineers, Inc.

  • Staff of 30 fire protection professionals

  • Nationwide exposure

  • Significant fire alarm, suppression and

  • code consulting experience

HEI - Lowell

HEI – Kansas City


Introduction presentation overview l.jpg
Introduction – Presentation Overview

  • Overview of Smoke Control

    • Engineered Smoke Control Systems

    • Stairwell Pressurization

    • Atrium Smoke Evacuation

      • Lobbies

      • Malls

    • Health Care

      • Anesthetizing Locations


Introduction what is smoke control l.jpg
Introduction – What is Smoke Control

  • Passive vs. Active

    • Passive

      • ‘Smoke Resistant Construction’

      • Smoke Barriers – 20 minute rated openings

    • Active

      • Pressurization Systems

        • High-rise of old

        • Healthcare

      • Atrium Smoke Exhaust

        • Exhaust

        • Makeup Air

      • Stair Towers

        • Exhaust

        • Makeup Air


Introduction why smoke control l.jpg
Introduction – Why Smoke Control

  • Inhalation injury from smoke and the noxious products of combustion in fires may account for as many as 75% of fire-related deaths in the U.S.

  • Key concept - minimize vertical smoke migration. Passive smoke control is known for poor maintenance. Unsealed penetrations, terminations, etc.

  • Basic concept of Smoke Control is to allow occupants to reach a protected means of egress

  • Fire Department Operations Tool (arguable purpose but fire departments will use it this way – fire fighters control panel)

  • Architectural Design Flexibility

Atlanta Marriot 47 Story

  • Fire Example



Part 1 codes applicable codes guidelines l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Applicable Codes/Guidelines

  • 2003 International Building Code (IBC), Section 909

  • NFPA 101 – Life Safety Code

  • NFPA 92A – Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems

  • NFPA 92B – Guide for Smoke Management in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas

  • ASHRAE 1999 HVAC Applications, Chapter 51

  • ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook

  • Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)

    • Building Inspector

    • Fire Marshall-State and Local


Part 1 codes where required l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Where Required

  • Atriums (IBC 404.4)

  • Enclosed Malls meeting Atrium definition (IBC 402.9)

  • High-rise

  • Windowless Buildings – Prisons (IBC 408.8)

  • Smoke Protected Seating (IBC 1024.6.2.1)

  • Healthcare

  • Stair Towers (IBC 1019.1.8)

    • 75 ft above fire department access


Part 1 codes where required9 l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Where Required

  • Atriums (2003 IBC 404.1.1/404.4)

    • “Atrium. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways… [ lists all shaft scenarios]…, which is closed at the top and not defined as mall…”

    • “404.4 Smoke Control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with section 909.”

  • Stair Towers(2003 IBC 1019.1.8)

    • “1019.1.8 Smokeproof enclosures. … each of the exits of a building that serves stories where the floor surface is located more than 75-feet above the lowest level of fire department access or 30-feet below the level of exit discharge … shall be a smoke proof enclosure or pressurized stairway.”


Part 1 codes smoke control methods l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Smoke Control Methods

  • IBC 909 does not specify a specific type of smoke control system. Options include:

    • Pressurization

      • .05-inches water gauge across smoke barriers

    • Airflow

      • Air Curtain

    • Exhaust

      • Atriums


Part 1 codes exhaust method l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method

  • Prescriptive Design

    • 5 MW Steady State Heat Release

    • 20 Minute Duration

  • Performance Design

    • Rational Analysis – 2006 IBC

    • Times 1.5 X Egress Time

    • Fire based on fuel load

1 MW at 7 Minutes

4.6 MW 260 Seconds


Part 1 codes exhaust method12 l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method

  • Prescriptive Design

    • 5 MW Steady State Heat Release (IBC 909.9)

      • Rather large for some scenarios

    • 20 Minute Duration (IBC 909.4.6)

      • 20 minute smoke barrier opening protection

    • Tenability (IBC 909.8.1)

      • 10-feet smoke interface 2003 IBC

      • 6-feet smoke interface 2006 IBC

    • Exhaust Capacity

      • Axisymmetric Plume (IBC 909.8.2)

      • Balcony Spill Plume (IBC 909.8.3)

        • In calculations air density must be adjusted for elevation and smoke temperature. See ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook


Part i codes exhaust method air movement l.jpg
Part I Codes – Exhaust Method Air Movement

  • Exhaust

    • Stratification

    • Stack Effect

    • Plugholling

  • Makeup Air

    • Natural or Mechanical

    • 85% total exhaust is rule of thumb

    • 200 fpm maximum velocity towards fire

      • Distortion of smoke plume

    • Introduce Below Smoke Layer


Part 1 codes equipment criteria l.jpg
Part 1 Codes – Equipment Criteria

  • UL Listings

    • Fans

    • Smoke Dampers

    • Fire Alarm Control Panel

    • BAS

  • Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel

    • Fire Command Center?

  • Equipment Temperature Ratings

    • IBC 909.10.1

  • Initiation as required by Rational Analysis

    • Sprinklers

    • Manual Pull Stations

    • Properly Zoned Sprinkler Waterflow Detection


  • Part 2 design smoke control design team l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Smoke Control Design Team

    • Specialty Engineered System

    • Multidiscipline Effort

      • Architect

      • MEF

      • Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)


    Part 2 design architectural component l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Architectural Component

    • Smoke Control Objective

    • Aesthetics

    • Automatic Door Hardware

    • Owner/Team

      Communication

    • Alternatives


    Part 2 design mechanical engineering component l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component

    • Makeup Air Configuration

    • Exhaust Air Configuration


    Part 2 design mechanical engineering component18 l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component

    • Fan Specification (IBC 909.10.5)

      • 1.5 X Belts Required for Design Duty

      • Minimum 2 Belts

      • Fan Temperature Ratings

    • Duct Specifications (IBC 909.10.2)

      • Withstand fire pressures and temperatures

      • Field Tested to 1.5 X maximum design pressure

    • Smoke Damper Approach

      • Omit where air path is instrumental to system operation

    • Fire Damper Approach

      • Higher Temperature Heat Links

    • BAS

      • Positive Indication of Fan Status


    Part 2 design electrical engineering component l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Electrical Engineering Component

    • Primary Power

    • Secondary Power

      • Dedicated Fire Resistant ATS/Secondary Power Room

      • 60 Second Transfer Time (IBC 909.11)

      • 15 minute duration UPS for volatile memory BAS (IBC 909.11.1).


    Part 2 design fire protection engineering component l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Fire ProtectionEngineering Component

    • Design Approach/Rational Analysis

      • Design Fire

      • Stack Effect/Hot Air Stratification

      • Temperature/Wind Effect

      • HVAC System Considerations

      • Plugholling

      • Duration of Operation (Egress Calculations)


    Part 2 design fire protection engineering component21 l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Fire ProtectionEngineering Component

    • Automatic Sprinkler System

      • Zone Coordination

    • Fire Alarm and Detection System

    • Firefighters Smoke Control Panel

    • Special Inspections


    Part 2 design authority having jurisdiction component l.jpg
    Part 2 Design – Authority HavingJurisdiction Component

    • Interpretations

    • Design Approval

    • Acceptance Criteria


    Part 3 commissioning general l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – General

    • Why Commission

      • Prove System Functionality

      • Develop Benchmark for Future Testing

    • Commissioning Concerns

      • Outside Normal Services

      • Educate Architects/Contractors/Owners Early

    • Commissioning Team

      • Owner

      • Engineers

      • AHJ

      • Air Balance and Test Group


    Part 3 commissioning preparation l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Preparation

    • Construction Completion/Partial Occupancy

    • Inspection

    • Component Level Testing

      • Functionality Test

    • Pre-test

      • Test System as a Whole

    • Final Acceptance Test

      • Presence of AHJ

      • Smoke Test if Required

        • Early AHJ coordination can avoids this


    Part 3 commissioning smoke testing l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing

    • Subjective - Smoke testing is extremely subjective although it will be required in many jurisdictions. NFPA 92A discusses smoke testing in detail. NFPA 92A (2002) Section A.5.3.3.6. speaks to the limited value of smoke testing.

    • Hot/Cold Smoke Testing

    • Limitations


    Part 3 commissioning smoke testing con t l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing (con’t)

    • Smoke Bombs

      • Superior Smoke

        • Smoke Volume

        • Discharge Time

    • Smoke Generators

      • Theatrical Units


    Part 3 commissioning air balance test reports l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Air Balance Test Reports

    • Air Balance Contractor

      • Clear Scope

        • Exhaust Fans

        • Makeup Air Fans

        • Makeup Air Inlets

      • Capability to Adjust Equipment


    Part 3 commissioning initiation l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation

    • Fire Alarm

      • Smoke Detection

      • Manual Alarms

      • Waterflow


    Part 3 commissioning initiation con t l.jpg
    Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation (con’t.)

    • Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel

      • Status Indication

      • Control



    Slide31 l.jpg

    Questions?

    Thank you.


    ad