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InRev1. The Apgar Scale. Score. 0. 1. 2. Characteristic. Heart rate Efforts to breathe Muscle tone Skin color Reflex irritability. Absent Absent Flaccid,limp Body pale or blue No response. Less than 100 beats per minute Slow, irregular Weak, inactive Body pink,

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InRev1

The Apgar Scale

Score

0

1

2

Characteristic

Heart rate

Efforts to breathe

Muscle tone

Skin color

Reflex irritability

Absent

Absent

Flaccid,limp

Body pale or blue

No response

Less than 100 beats per minute

Slow, irregular

Weak, inactive

Body pink,

extremities blue

Frown, grimace

More that 100 beats per minute

Good; baby is crying

Strong, active motion

Body and extremities pink

Vigorous crying, coughing, sneezing

Source: Apgar (1953)


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Height and Weight Growth During the First Two Years

Height

Weight

105

41.3

15

33.1

100

39.4

14

30.9

95

37.4

13

28.7

Boys

90

35.4

12

26.5

Boys

85

33.5

11

24.3

80

31.5

10

22.0

Kilograms

Inches

Centimeters

Pounds

75

29.5

9

19.8

75

27.6

8

17.6

65

25.6

7

15.4

Girls

Girls

60

23.6

6

13.2

55

21.7

5

11.0

19.7

50

8.8

4

17.7

45

6.6

3

15.7

40

4.4

2

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

Age in Months

Age in Months


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Body Proportions, Fetal Period Through Adulthood

2 months

(fetal)

5 months

(fetal)

Newborn

2 years

6 years

12 years

25 years


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Percentages of Adult Weight

  • BrainBody

  • At Birth 25% 5%

  • 2 Years 75% 20%

  • 4 Years 90% 20%



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    State of Arousal in Infants

    State

    Behavior of Infants

    Non-REM sleep

    REM sleep

    Drowsiness

    Alert inactivity

    Alert activity

    Distress

    Complete rest

    Occasional twitches; irregular and intermittent eye movements

    Occasional movements, but fewer than in REM sleep; eyes open and close;glazed look

    Eyes open and scanning; body relatively still

    Eyes open, but not attending or scanning; frequent,diffuse bodily movements; vocalizations

    Whimpering or crying; vigorous movements; facial grimaces; skin flushed

    Source: Ferber and Kryger (1995)


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    Developmental Changes in Sleep Requirements

    24

    16

    14

    WAKING

    12

    REM SLEEP

    10

    AVERAGE DAILY SLEEP (HOURS)

    8

    6

    NREM SLEEP

    4

    2

    1-15

    days

    3-15

    mos.

    6-23

    mos.

    2-3

    yrs.

    3-5

    yrs.

    5-13

    yrs.

    14-18

    yrs.

    19-30

    yrs.

    33-45

    yrs.

    90

    yrs.

    INFANCY

    ADOLESCENCE

    CHILDHOOD

    ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE


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    MAJOR REFLEX REACTIONS IN NEWBORN INFANTS

    SURVIVAL REFLEXES: Serve obvious physical needs

    breathing sucking eyeblink

    rooting swallowing pupillary

    PRIMITIVE REFLEXES: Serve no obvious physical needs; may be vestiges of important reflex behaviors at earlier stages of human evolution

    moro tonic neck stepping

    grasping Babinski swimming



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    PIAGET'S STAGES OF SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE

    Stage 1: Early reflexes Birth - 1 month

    Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions 1 - 4 months

    Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions 4 - 8 months

    Stage 4: Combines Secondary Circular Reactions 8 - 12 months

    Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 - 18 months

    Stage 6: The First Symbols 18 – 24 months


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    Toys That Support Cognitive Development in Infancy

    12 - 24 Months

    Birth - 2 Months

    6 - 12 Months

    Mobile in crib

    Rattle

    Music box

    Squeeze toys

    Nested plastic cups

    Boxes with lids

    Soft ball

    Stuffed animals

    Pots and pans

    Picture books (especially cloth or cardboard)

    Dolls, especially large ones

    Toy telephone

    Puzzles (5 - 10 pieces)

    Vehicles (cars, boats, train)

    Sandbox, shovel, and pail

    Water toys (cups, funnel, etc.)

    Picture books with simple words


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    One-month-old

    Two-month-old

    Finish

    Start

    Finish

    Start


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    Phase 1

    Phase 2

    Reversal Shift

    Phase 2

    Non-Reversal Shift

    R

    R

    R

    R

    R

    R

    Here, the infant must

    discriminate the dimension

    of color. Red shapes are

    rewarded but blue are

    not - provided that the

    child looks at the red ones.

    R = Rewarded

    In phase 2 with a reversal

    shift, the infant must still

    discriminate the same

    dimension, but a different

    value of the dimension.

    Color is still rewarded, but

    now it is the color blue

    instead of red.

    In phase 2 with a non-

    reversal shift, the infant must

    discriminate a new dimension

    in order to be rewarded in

    this case the dimension of

    shape. Triangles are now

    rewarded, regardless of color.


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    Evidence of Object Permanence in Infants

    HABITUATION EVENT: First, the child is shown an inclined track with a screen that can be raised and lowered.

    She becomes habituated to watching a car roll down the track, behind the screen , and out the other side.

    A

    TEST EVENTS

    "Possible" event: In one test condition, a toy mouse is placed behind the tracks, but is hidden while the car rolls past.

    B

    "Impossible" event: In the other test condition, the mouse is placed on the tracks, but is secretly removed after the screen in place, so that the car seems to roll "through" the mouse.

    C


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    FIVE ASPECTS

    OF LANGUAGE

    • PHONOLOGY: Sounds of a language

    • LEXICON: Words of a language

    • SEMANTICS: Meanings of words

    • PRAGMATICS: Rules for using a language in a social context

    • SYNTAX: Organization and grammatical rules of a language


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    Summary of Physical Development in the First Two Years

    • Cephalocaudal and proximodistal directions of growth

    • At birth the brain is 25% of its adult weight, the body only 5%.

    • By two years the brain is 75%, and the body 20% of adult weights.

    • Neonate is born with variety of reflexive behaviors.

    • Infant sleeps two times as much as adult.

    • Injuries claim lives of more children than all major illnesses combined.


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    Summary of Cognitive Development in the First Two Years

    • Infants are in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.

    • Concept of object permanence develops during this stage.

    • Cooing, babbling, first words and two-word sentences appear in language growth, up to a vocabulary of about 200 words.


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