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InRev1. The Apgar Scale. Score. 0. 1. 2. Characteristic. Heart rate Efforts to breathe Muscle tone Skin color Reflex irritability. Absent Absent Flaccid,limp Body pale or blue No response. Less than 100 beats per minute Slow, irregular Weak, inactive Body pink,

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slide1

InRev1

The Apgar Scale

Score

0

1

2

Characteristic

Heart rate

Efforts to breathe

Muscle tone

Skin color

Reflex irritability

Absent

Absent

Flaccid,limp

Body pale or blue

No response

Less than 100 beats per minute

Slow, irregular

Weak, inactive

Body pink,

extremities blue

Frown, grimace

More that 100 beats per minute

Good; baby is crying

Strong, active motion

Body and extremities pink

Vigorous crying, coughing, sneezing

Source: Apgar (1953)

slide2

Height and Weight Growth During the First Two Years

Height

Weight

105

41.3

15

33.1

100

39.4

14

30.9

95

37.4

13

28.7

Boys

90

35.4

12

26.5

Boys

85

33.5

11

24.3

80

31.5

10

22.0

Kilograms

Inches

Centimeters

Pounds

75

29.5

9

19.8

75

27.6

8

17.6

65

25.6

7

15.4

Girls

Girls

60

23.6

6

13.2

55

21.7

5

11.0

19.7

50

8.8

4

17.7

45

6.6

3

15.7

40

4.4

2

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

Age in Months

Age in Months

slide3

Body Proportions, Fetal Period Through Adulthood

2 months

(fetal)

5 months

(fetal)

Newborn

2 years

6 years

12 years

25 years

slide4

Percentages of Adult Weight

      • BrainBody
  • At Birth 25% 5%
  • 2 Years 75% 20%
  • 4 Years 90% 20%
slide6

State of Arousal in Infants

State

Behavior of Infants

Non-REM sleep

REM sleep

Drowsiness

Alert inactivity

Alert activity

Distress

Complete rest

Occasional twitches; irregular and intermittent eye movements

Occasional movements, but fewer than in REM sleep; eyes open and close;glazed look

Eyes open and scanning; body relatively still

Eyes open, but not attending or scanning; frequent,diffuse bodily movements; vocalizations

Whimpering or crying; vigorous movements; facial grimaces; skin flushed

Source: Ferber and Kryger (1995)

slide7

Developmental Changes in Sleep Requirements

24

16

14

WAKING

12

REM SLEEP

10

AVERAGE DAILY SLEEP (HOURS)

8

6

NREM SLEEP

4

2

1-15

days

3-15

mos.

6-23

mos.

2-3

yrs.

3-5

yrs.

5-13

yrs.

14-18

yrs.

19-30

yrs.

33-45

yrs.

90

yrs.

INFANCY

ADOLESCENCE

CHILDHOOD

ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE

slide8

MAJOR REFLEX REACTIONS IN NEWBORN INFANTS

SURVIVAL REFLEXES: Serve obvious physical needs

breathing sucking eyeblink

rooting swallowing pupillary

PRIMITIVE REFLEXES: Serve no obvious physical needs; may be vestiges of important reflex behaviors at earlier stages of human evolution

moro tonic neck stepping

grasping Babinski swimming

slide10

PIAGET\'S STAGES OF SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE

Stage 1: Early reflexes Birth - 1 month

Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions 1 - 4 months

Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions 4 - 8 months

Stage 4: Combines Secondary Circular Reactions 8 - 12 months

Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 - 18 months

Stage 6: The First Symbols 18 – 24 months

slide11

Toys That Support Cognitive Development in Infancy

12 - 24 Months

Birth - 2 Months

6 - 12 Months

Mobile in crib

Rattle

Music box

Squeeze toys

Nested plastic cups

Boxes with lids

Soft ball

Stuffed animals

Pots and pans

Picture books (especially cloth or cardboard)

Dolls, especially large ones

Toy telephone

Puzzles (5 - 10 pieces)

Vehicles (cars, boats, train)

Sandbox, shovel, and pail

Water toys (cups, funnel, etc.)

Picture books with simple words

slide12

One-month-old

Two-month-old

Finish

Start

Finish

Start

slide13

Phase 1

Phase 2

Reversal Shift

Phase 2

Non-Reversal Shift

R

R

R

R

R

R

Here, the infant must

discriminate the dimension

of color. Red shapes are

rewarded but blue are

not - provided that the

child looks at the red ones.

R = Rewarded

In phase 2 with a reversal

shift, the infant must still

discriminate the same

dimension, but a different

value of the dimension.

Color is still rewarded, but

now it is the color blue

instead of red.

In phase 2 with a non-

reversal shift, the infant must

discriminate a new dimension

in order to be rewarded in

this case the dimension of

shape. Triangles are now

rewarded, regardless of color.

slide14

Evidence of Object Permanence in Infants

HABITUATION EVENT: First, the child is shown an inclined track with a screen that can be raised and lowered.

She becomes habituated to watching a car roll down the track, behind the screen , and out the other side.

A

TEST EVENTS

"Possible" event: In one test condition, a toy mouse is placed behind the tracks, but is hidden while the car rolls past.

B

"Impossible" event: In the other test condition, the mouse is placed on the tracks, but is secretly removed after the screen in place, so that the car seems to roll "through" the mouse.

C

slide15

FIVE ASPECTS

OF LANGUAGE

  • PHONOLOGY: Sounds of a language
  • LEXICON: Words of a language
  • SEMANTICS: Meanings of words
  • PRAGMATICS: Rules for using a language in a social context
  • SYNTAX: Organization and grammatical rules of a language
slide16

Summary of Physical Development in the First Two Years

  • Cephalocaudal and proximodistal directions of growth
  • At birth the brain is 25% of its adult weight, the body only 5%.
  • By two years the brain is 75%, and the body 20% of adult weights.
  • Neonate is born with variety of reflexive behaviors.
  • Infant sleeps two times as much as adult.
  • Injuries claim lives of more children than all major illnesses combined.
slide17

Summary of Cognitive Development in the First Two Years

  • Infants are in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.
  • Concept of object permanence develops during this stage.
  • Cooing, babbling, first words and two-word sentences appear in language growth, up to a vocabulary of about 200 words.
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