How to protect your budgets,  sanity, and native species

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How to protect your budgets, sanity, and native species

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1. Adaptive Management of Invasive Species - and - Partnering with Federal Agencies Introductory helloIntroductory hello

2. Who I am, the conservancy is, and WISTWho I am, the conservancy is, and WIST

3. Science-based conservation Approach conservation scientificallyApproach conservation scientifically

4. Outline Outline of talk, Already covered IntroductionOutline of talk, Already covered Introduction

5. Definitions: Weeds and Goals Start with definitions, so we can agree upon what we are talking about. Note these three different terms are not the same, although they are sometimes used interchangeablyStart with definitions, so we can agree upon what we are talking about. Note these three different terms are not the same, although they are sometimes used interchangeably

6. Definitions: weeds Weedy terms are used interchangeably, resulting in this problem. Euler diagramsWeedy terms are used interchangeably, resulting in this problem. Euler diagrams

7. Definitions: Goals Not only must you define and understand what is a weed, it is critical you understand what is your conservation goal. Indeed, knowing what you want is really the first stage in this. You should define that BEFORE you can say what is opposing your conservation work. This site is U. inflata, and whether it is a lovely field of wildflowers or invaded wetland depends upon the site---Florida vs. Washington!Not only must you define and understand what is a weed, it is critical you understand what is your conservation goal. Indeed, knowing what you want is really the first stage in this. You should define that BEFORE you can say what is opposing your conservation work. This site is U. inflata, and whether it is a lovely field of wildflowers or invaded wetland depends upon the site---Florida vs. Washington!

8. If you try to attack all the non-native plants, you will go insane. You must choose your battles. A strategy is required, that must fit the nature of the invasion.If you try to attack all the non-native plants, you will go insane. You must choose your battles. A strategy is required, that must fit the nature of the invasion.

9. So let us look at that, the nature of the invasionSo let us look at that, the nature of the invasion

10. Many different effects from invasives. Note that some may have no effect, or even positive effects.Many different effects from invasives. Note that some may have no effect, or even positive effects.

11. Melaleuca, punktree, in FloridaMelaleuca, punktree, in Florida

12. Complete community change. Also changes in soil temperature, no recruitment of natives.Complete community change. Also changes in soil temperature, no recruitment of natives.

13. Kudzu displacing natives in Alabama.Kudzu displacing natives in Alabama.

14. Complete habitat conversion from open water to closed canopy.Complete habitat conversion from open water to closed canopy.

15. But complete habitat conversion is not the only risk. Other, more insidious effects include… Introduces fine dead fuels, which allow for the spread of fire. Fire was about 60 years, Sarcobatus, etc.But complete habitat conversion is not the only risk. Other, more insidious effects include… Introduces fine dead fuels, which allow for the spread of fire. Fire was about 60 years, Sarcobatus, etc.

16. Knapweed, dense cover. Perhaps decreases erosion? But no! (lower right photo is from Western Montana)Knapweed, dense cover. Perhaps decreases erosion? But no! (lower right photo is from Western Montana)

17. Note that the knapweed encourage runoff, i.e. increased erosion. This was a study comparing to bunchgrass habitat in Garrison, Montana.Note that the knapweed encourage runoff, i.e. increased erosion. This was a study comparing to bunchgrass habitat in Garrison, Montana.

18. Cogongrass in Florida (This next slide will discuss how Cogongrass changes the “nature” of fire in a fire adaptedcommunity.Cogongrass in Florida (This next slide will discuss how Cogongrass changes the “nature” of fire in a fire adaptedcommunity.

19. Note increased FDFuels. (Asterisks were used in the paper to indicate significant differences.)Note increased FDFuels. (Asterisks were used in the paper to indicate significant differences.)

20. Furthermore, cogongrass is a tall grass. The fuel distribution is taller. Even though cogongrass is invading a habitat driven by fire, it is changing the nature of the fire.Furthermore, cogongrass is a tall grass. The fuel distribution is taller. Even though cogongrass is invading a habitat driven by fire, it is changing the nature of the fire.

21. Now we’ll look at the effects of invaders on nesting birds. Bush honeysuckles: Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle) Lonicera tatarica Buckthorns: Rhamnus cathartica, Rhamnus frangula (syn. Frangula alnus) Common invaders to the eastern USA. Now we’ll look at the effects of invaders on nesting birds. Bush honeysuckles: Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle) Lonicera tatarica Buckthorns: Rhamnus cathartica, Rhamnus frangula (syn. Frangula alnus) Common invaders to the eastern USA.

22. NY study of robins and wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) have higher mortality in Lonicera and Rhamnus than in native shrubs. Nests are closer to the ground, not thorned. Crataegus=hawthorn. NY study of robins and wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) have higher mortality in Lonicera and Rhamnus than in native shrubs. Nests are closer to the ground, not thorned. Crataegus=hawthorn.

23. Norway maple, invading sugar maple forests in eastern USA Are there clear examples of this replacement affecting biodiversity? Norway maple, invading sugar maple forests in eastern USA Are there clear examples of this replacement affecting biodiversity?

24. Notice that in histogram pair #3, lower seedling density in Norway than in Sugar maple. The statistical significance is strong in sapling density (histogram pair #1). When excluding Norway maple from counts, i.e. only native seedlings, differences are even clearer and more significant (pairs #2, 4) Martin, P. H. 1999. Norway maple (Acer platanoides) invasion of a natural forest stand: understory consequence and regeneration pattern. Biological Invasions 1: 215-222.Notice that in histogram pair #3, lower seedling density in Norway than in Sugar maple. The statistical significance is strong in sapling density (histogram pair #1). When excluding Norway maple from counts, i.e. only native seedlings, differences are even clearer and more significant (pairs #2, 4) Martin, P. H. 1999. Norway maple (Acer platanoides) invasion of a natural forest stand: understory consequence and regeneration pattern. Biological Invasions 1: 215-222.

25. Hybridization is a threat. Lantana camara hybridizes with Lantana depressa Rubus discolor hybridizes with Rubus ursinusHybridization is a threat. Lantana camara hybridizes with Lantana depressa Rubus discolor hybridizes with Rubus ursinus

26. Abundance Threshold The phenomenon of Abundance Thresholds appears to be little understood. It may be you can have more of a weed than you thought, and still support your conservation goals. The phenomenon of Abundance Thresholds appears to be little understood. It may be you can have more of a weed than you thought, and still support your conservation goals.

27. Impact of one invasive, 2/3 reduction in species richness. Note potential 50% threshold. Raw data from one transect.Impact of one invasive, 2/3 reduction in species richness. Note potential 50% threshold. Raw data from one transect.

28. Other reasons for invasives control Is the invader more an “aesthetic problem” (visually prominent, ugly) than a real threat to management goals? Is the invader more an “aesthetic problem” (visually prominent, ugly) than a real threat to management goals?

29. Show elements of slide. Each click will bring on a new bit of red text.Show elements of slide. Each click will bring on a new bit of red text.

30. So you have an invasion, time to strategizeSo you have an invasion, time to strategize

31. 1)How far you are into the invasion process 2)Nature of invader: rapid multiplier? Fast disperser? Seed bank? Etc. 3)Biodiversity? Forage for wildlife? Grazing? “Programmatic site” that is just for fund raising? 4)Are you dedicated to the cause, or just a tourist? For your monitoring, do you have money for a nice, remote sensing application, or can you only drive along the roads a few times a year1)How far you are into the invasion process 2)Nature of invader: rapid multiplier? Fast disperser? Seed bank? Etc. 3)Biodiversity? Forage for wildlife? Grazing? “Programmatic site” that is just for fund raising? 4)Are you dedicated to the cause, or just a tourist? For your monitoring, do you have money for a nice, remote sensing application, or can you only drive along the roads a few times a year

32. Can you articulate your concerns? When considering your invasive weeds problem, make sure you can support your reasons for controlling the invasive. Know why you are entering a control program! Note: “I am a weed warrior, and I hate weeds” is not a useful approach.When considering your invasive weeds problem, make sure you can support your reasons for controlling the invasive. Know why you are entering a control program! Note: “I am a weed warrior, and I hate weeds” is not a useful approach.

33. Adaptive Management Loop Walk through the loop. Many people start somewhere between steps 3 and 4. On step five, don’t just monitor the effects on your weeds. Look for the effects on your desired species or communities!Walk through the loop. Many people start somewhere between steps 3 and 4. On step five, don’t just monitor the effects on your weeds. Look for the effects on your desired species or communities!

34. Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the lower left portion. Of course, it is best when you can work against the weed before it is even on your property. Don’t have something that neighbors do? See if you can convince your neighbors to work to control it! The battle is done on their area (maybe not in your sensitive zone), maybe even with their resources! Once the infestation has begun on your property, this part of the weed invasion curve is still your friend. This is an apparent lag time, during which the weed is mostly just a few plants here and there, in very controllable numbers.Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the lower left portion. Of course, it is best when you can work against the weed before it is even on your property. Don’t have something that neighbors do? See if you can convince your neighbors to work to control it! The battle is done on their area (maybe not in your sensitive zone), maybe even with their resources! Once the infestation has begun on your property, this part of the weed invasion curve is still your friend. This is an apparent lag time, during which the weed is mostly just a few plants here and there, in very controllable numbers.

35. These numbers give use an idea that there may be many years, even decades, as long as we are vigilant. The key is to catch the plants as early after introduction as possible to avoid being on the losing rise of the curve. Binggeli P. (in press) Time-lags between introduction, establishment and rapid spread of introducedenvironmental weeds. In Proceedings of the III International Weed Science Congress. International Weed Science Society, Corvallis. (updated from Binggeli, Hall, and Healey, 1998). http://members.tripod.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/publication.htm These numbers give use an idea that there may be many years, even decades, as long as we are vigilant. The key is to catch the plants as early after introduction as possible to avoid being on the losing rise of the curve. Binggeli P. (in press) Time-lags between introduction, establishment and rapid spread of introducedenvironmental weeds. In Proceedings of the III International Weed Science Congress. International Weed Science Society, Corvallis. (updated from Binggeli, Hall, and Healey, 1998). http://members.tripod.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/publication.htm

36. Note that successful eradications in California depended upon early detection! A = Alhagi H = Hydrilla P = Peganum From: Rejmanek,M., M. Pitcairn and D. Bayer. In Press (2001), 16 species of noxious weeds, 50 infestations (CDFA data) Note that successful eradications in California depended upon early detection! A = Alhagi H = Hydrilla P = Peganum From: Rejmanek,M., M. Pitcairn and D. Bayer. In Press (2001), 16 species of noxious weeds, 50 infestations (CDFA data)

37. New weeds: take action or study them? These are all valid considerations. You must look at each infestation. See what you can learn from what happened to others with this weed. But don’t take a chance if you don’t have to. Which two of the above is bad?These are all valid considerations. You must look at each infestation. See what you can learn from what happened to others with this weed. But don’t take a chance if you don’t have to. Which two of the above is bad?

38. Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the stage 3. This part of the weed invasion curve requires careful strategy on your part.Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the stage 3. This part of the weed invasion curve requires careful strategy on your part.

39. 1)Now that you have a bad invasion, you will have to carefully plan to avoid wasting your time. Use adaptive management. 2)When you are setting your goals, decide what you can live with. You are unlikely to get eradication, so lower your goals to acceptable values. Is there that threshold that you can accept. 3)Use strategy. In this invasion scenario below, attack the outlier populations. Do not attack the main infestations. (Click, and introduce a stream. Now, the priority would change, and you’d want to get the upstream populations.) Indeed, some studies suggest that when dispersal is very easy, and seed production is high, your best bet is to go for the main populations. If the plant is dioceious, or has a long maturity time, perhaps you would selectively target mature plants. Same if there is a high mortality rate---let the seedlings compete amonst themselves, you kill the mature ones.1)Now that you have a bad invasion, you will have to carefully plan to avoid wasting your time. Use adaptive management. 2)When you are setting your goals, decide what you can live with. You are unlikely to get eradication, so lower your goals to acceptable values. Is there that threshold that you can accept. 3)Use strategy. In this invasion scenario below, attack the outlier populations. Do not attack the main infestations. (Click, and introduce a stream. Now, the priority would change, and you’d want to get the upstream populations.) Indeed, some studies suggest that when dispersal is very easy, and seed production is high, your best bet is to go for the main populations. If the plant is dioceious, or has a long maturity time, perhaps you would selectively target mature plants. Same if there is a high mortality rate---let the seedlings compete amonst themselves, you kill the mature ones.

40. 1)The implication here is that you are going to emphasize some, while letting others go for a while. --Emphasize control on those that will affect your targets, are about to transition from controllable to irreversible, new invaders that can easily be controlled. 2)Is the invasion already so far gone, you should use your resources elsewhere? 3)Are the effects of herbicides, trampling boy scouts, etc more damaging than the weed? 4)Are your problems symptomatic of something else? (Overgrazing, bad water quality, no dams)1)The implication here is that you are going to emphasize some, while letting others go for a while. --Emphasize control on those that will affect your targets, are about to transition from controllable to irreversible, new invaders that can easily be controlled. 2)Is the invasion already so far gone, you should use your resources elsewhere? 3)Are the effects of herbicides, trampling boy scouts, etc more damaging than the weed? 4)Are your problems symptomatic of something else? (Overgrazing, bad water quality, no dams)

41. Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the stage 4. This part of the weed invasion curve requires careful strategy, philosophy, and perhaps tough love on your part.Return to the weed invasion. Another click will introduce the box around the stage 4. This part of the weed invasion curve requires careful strategy, philosophy, and perhaps tough love on your part.

42. 1)Bad news for you….even though a weed infestation may seem small, once its distribution reaches a threshold size (which may be small relative to the size of your site), it becomes, for all intents and purposes, impossible to eliminate—it will eventually spread unabated throughout the occurrence. In other words, if the distribution of the invasive weed reaches the threshold size, it is functionally equivalent to being spread throughout the entire area. 2)You will probably have to accept that the species is now part of the landscape. Perhaps you can select regions where there will not be this species. ---Click once---perhaps you have some globally rare species, you want to protect this area. ---Click again---perhaps the species occurs along the stream, you want to protect this area.1)Bad news for you….even though a weed infestation may seem small, once its distribution reaches a threshold size (which may be small relative to the size of your site), it becomes, for all intents and purposes, impossible to eliminate—it will eventually spread unabated throughout the occurrence. In other words, if the distribution of the invasive weed reaches the threshold size, it is functionally equivalent to being spread throughout the entire area. 2)You will probably have to accept that the species is now part of the landscape. Perhaps you can select regions where there will not be this species. ---Click once---perhaps you have some globally rare species, you want to protect this area. ---Click again---perhaps the species occurs along the stream, you want to protect this area.

43. This slide applies to all four stages of the invasion. Walk through slideThis slide applies to all four stages of the invasion. Walk through slide

44. Look at control methods. What do you use?Look at control methods. What do you use?

45. Every control method causes undesirable damage, so choose the method that achieves your dual goal (kill weeds, do not kill natives) most effectively. Every control method causes undesirable damage, so choose the method that achieves your dual goal (kill weeds, do not kill natives) most effectively.

46. When things get sad.When things get sad.

47. Walk through slideWalk through slide

48. Effective way to work is in groups, especially when you do not have to be redundant in your efforts. Astonishes me when we get email from people who tell me they are going to try some complicated new experiment, when that experiment has already been completed by someone else quite well. Your first step in assessing strategies, methods, deciding priorities, should be to find out what has already been determined elsewhere. This will save you lots of time.Effective way to work is in groups, especially when you do not have to be redundant in your efforts. Astonishes me when we get email from people who tell me they are going to try some complicated new experiment, when that experiment has already been completed by someone else quite well. Your first step in assessing strategies, methods, deciding priorities, should be to find out what has already been determined elsewhere. This will save you lots of time.

49. Cooperatives help you deal with weeds that are someone else’s problems, but which WILL become your problem. See these online resources.Cooperatives help you deal with weeds that are someone else’s problems, but which WILL become your problem. See these online resources.

50. Cooperatives help you deal with weeds that are someone else’s problems, but which WILL become your problem. See these online resources.Cooperatives help you deal with weeds that are someone else’s problems, but which WILL become your problem. See these online resources.

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