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Frog Dissection. Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish. Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p100-107. AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTICS. Moist, thin skin without scales Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult Feet without claws

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Frog dissection l.jpg

Frog Dissection


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Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish


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Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p100-107


Amphibian characteristics l.jpg

AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTICS

Moist, thin skin without scales

Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult

Feet without claws

Respiration with gills, lungs, skin, mouth

Closed 2 loop circulation

Ectothermic (cold blooded)

Eggs without shells or multicellular membranes


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http://users.erols.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/V/Vertebrates.html

http://www.spekulantenguide.de/gifs/salamanderw.jpg


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FROG

ANIMALIA

LATIN meaning

KINGDOM _____________

PHYLUM ____________________________

SUBPHYLUM ___________________________

CLASS _______________________________

ORDER _____________________________

CHORDATA

VERTEBRATA “backbone”

AMPHIBIA “double life”

ANURA “without a tail”


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Thin, moist skin – no scales

Mucous glands make it “slimy”

Camouflage- for protection

Some have poison glands

http://www-binf.bio.uu.nl/dutilh/hall/kikkers.html


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http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/snc2g1/frogresp.htm

BREATHING THROUGH SKIN is called CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION


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ECTOTHERMIC“cold blooded”

Body temperature is dependent on surrounding environment

http://www.vanscyoc.net/randy/garden/wildlife/image4.htm


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HIBERNATION/ ESTIVATION

FAT stored in FAT BODIES provides energy

Images from:

http://www.enc.org/Classroom_Calendar/CC_Units/Unit_Images/185.jpg

http://www.reptilis.org/pyxi/image5.htm


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Nictitating membrane

image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html


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NO CLAWS

image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html


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EXIT OPENINGS

ANUS

DIGESTIVE WASTE (feces) =

_________________

Shared EXCRETORY & REPRODUCTIVE EXIT =

_____________________________

(Urine & eggs or Urine & sperm)

UROGENITAL PORE


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EXIT OPENINGS

OPENING SHARED BY

EXCRETORY,

REPRODUCTIVE,

& DIGESTIVE =

______________

VENT

http://www.student.loretto.org/zoology/Amphibians.htm


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What sex is it?

Images from:

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/frog_dissection.htm


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AMPLEXUS“firm embrace”

Sperm and egg released @ same time and place

Increases chances of fertilization


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Imagse from:

http://www.animationlibrary.com

http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology.htm

TONGUE attached at front not back like yours!


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image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html

Muscular

Back of throat

Pulls food into

digestive system


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image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html

Connect ears

to back of throat


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image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html

GLOTTIS

Opening to

respiratory

GULLET

Opening to digestive


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Images from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/frog_dissection.htm


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Image from; http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20 Laboratory/frog%20dissection/frog%20dissection_files/frame.htm


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Image from; http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20 Laboratory/frog%20dissection/frog%20dissection_files/frame.htm

Females may have black & white eggs


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image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/frog/frogdissectlist.html

Pericardial membrane around heart

Mesentery holds intestines together


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image from: http://www.manheimcentral.org/~tw005690/Frog/frog.htm

Mesentery holds intestines together


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FAT BODIES

Store fat for energy during

Hibernation

Estivation

Breeding

Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


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Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


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Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


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http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/departments/neurophysiology/public/teaching/alimentary_lectures/datashow/1-overview/gfx/pylorus.jpg

PYLORIC SPHINCTER

CONTROLS passage of food from stomach

into duodenum (intestine)


Gall bladder l.jpg

Gall Bladder

Image from: http://school.discovery.com/quizzes6/muskopf/frog.html


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Make acid and digestive enzymes

Start digestion (grind up food)

STOMACH:

LIVER:

GALL BLADDER

Make bile

Store glycogen

Store vitamins

Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys

Store bile


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PANCREAS


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Pancreas (enlarged)


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Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON

PANCREAS:

TRYPSIN- breaks down proteins

INSULIN- tells cells to store glucose from

bloodstream as glycogen

GLUCAGON- tells cells to release stored

glucose to blood stream


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SPLEEN

Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones


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http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/Biog101_104/tutorials/frog.html

SMALL INTESTINE

DUODENUM

Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion

ILEUM

Absorbs nutrients

VILLI

Increase surface area

http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/epithelium/wp_images/107%20villi.jpg


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http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/largeintestine.html

LARGE INTESTINE

Removes water from digestive waste;

concentrates feces


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10 Body Systems :

EXCRETORY

___________________

Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells

Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms:

___________ __________ _____________

MOST TOXIC made from LEAST TOXIC ammonia by needs the least liver water to dilute

FISH HUMANS BIRDS, REPTILES

AMPHIBIANS

AMMONIA

UREA

URIC ACID


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ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME!

DIGESTIVE waste-left over from undigested foodtravels through digestive system

leaves through digestive system as feces

EXCRETORY waste- (Also called NITROGEN WASTE)made by cells from break down of proteins

travels through blood stream

leaves through excretory system as

ammonia, urea, or uric acid


Diagram by riedell l.jpg

Diagram by: Riedell


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KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation

Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


Urinary bladder l.jpg

URINARY BLADDER

STORES URINE

MADE BY KIDNEYS

LARVAE (Tadpoles)

Excrete AMMONIA like fish

Adult frogs excrete

UREA to conserve water

http://www.manheimcentral.org/~tw005690/Frog/frog.htm


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CLOACA

DIGESTIVE

EXCRETORY

REPRODUCTIVE


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http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/index.html

LUNGS:

GASEXCHANGE

http://www.stclement.pvt.k12.il.us/studentWeb/science98/GarrittPatM/alveoli.gif


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http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/snc2g1/frogresp.htm

BREATHING WITH LUNGS is called PULMONARY RESPIRATION


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Larvae breathe with GILLS


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OVARIES

Make eggs

Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


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Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html

Carry eggs to cloaca

Add jelly coating


Testes l.jpg

MAKE SPERM

TESTES

http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html


Testes kidney l.jpg

TESTES KIDNEY


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AMPLEXUS“firm embrace”


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INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT

Grow legs; Lose tail

2 chambers  3 chambers

1 loop 2 loops

Breathe w/ gills lungs & skin

Excrete ammonia excrete urea

(gills & kidneys) (kidneys)

http://saczoo.com/3_kids/images


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Ways tadpoles are like fish

Have a LATERAL LINE

Breathe with gills

Excrete nitrogen waste as AMMONIA (with gills & kidneys)

Have a 2 chamber heart

Have a 1 loop

circulatory system


Heart l.jpg

HEART

3 chambered heart

Right atrium

Left atrium

Ventricle

Image from: http://www.digitalfrog.com/resources/froggallery.html


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Images from: http://www2.volstate.edu/msd/BIO/1020/Lab7ChordateII.htm

TADPOLES & FISH: 2 chambered heart

1 loop system

ADULT FROG:

3 chamber heart

2 loop system


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MOST vertebrates have nuclei in their RBC’s

MAMMALS DON’T

RBCs’ image from: http://www.fish-news.com/RG4001.jpg

Human RBC image from: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/moleculestomeds/images/bloodcells.gif


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Sinus

venosus

BODYorgans

Atrium

GILLS

Conus

arteriosus

Ventricle

FISH CIRCULATION


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Sinus

venosus

Bodyorgans

RIGHTAtrium

LEFTAtrium

Lungs

Conus

arteriosus

Ventricle

FROG CIRCULATION


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Sinus

venosus

Bodyorgans

RIGHTAtrium

LEFTAtrium

Lungs

Conus

arteriosus

Ventricle

FROG CIRCULATION


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BRAIN

http://www.manheimcentral.org/~tw005690/Frog/frog.htm


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