Noam Chomsky
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 51

First language acquisition PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 560 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

. . Chomsky, Noam, in full AVRAM NOAM CHOMSKY (b. Dec. 7, 1928,Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.), American linguist and political activist who founded transformational generative grammar, an original and highly influential system of linguistic analysis. . . . . His undergraduate and graduate years were spent at the University of Pennsylvania where he received his PhD in linguistics in 1955. During the years 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard University Society of Fellow9456

Download Presentation

First language acquisition

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


First language acquisition

Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky was

born on December 7,

1928 in Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania

061


First language acquisition

Introduction

Chomsky, Noam, in full AVRAM NOAM CHOMSKY (b. Dec. 7, 1928,Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.), American linguist and political activist who founded transformational generative grammar, an original and highly influential system of linguistic analysis.

His undergraduate and graduate years were spent at the University of

Pennsylvania where he received his PhD in linguistics in 1955. During

the years 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard

University Society of Fellows. While a Junior Fellow he completed his

doctoral dissertation entitled, "Transformational Analysis." The major

theoretical viewpoints of the dissertation appeared in the monograph

Syntactic Structure, which was published in 1957. This formed part of

a more extensive work, The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory,

circulated in mimeograph in 1955 and published in 1975.


First language acquisition

Chomsky was introduced to the study of linguistics by his father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.


First language acquisition

Works

Chomsky's work virtually defined the methods of linguistic analysis

used in the second half of the 20th century.

Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965),

Cartesian Linguistics (1966),

The Sound Pattern of English (with Morris Halle, 1968),

Language and Mind (1968; enlarged ed., 1972),

The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1975),

and Reflections on Language (1975).

Language and Responsibility (1979)

discusses the relation of language and politics and the ramifications

of generative grammar.

Language and Problems of Knowledge (1988), further examine those

subjects.


First language acquisition

Chomsky also became well known for his opposition to the

United States' involvement in the Vietnam War during the late1960s and early '70s.

His books criticizing American foreign policy and the role

played by giant corporations and the mass media include

American Power and the New Mandarins (1969),

Towards a New Cold War (1982), Pirates & Emperors (1986),

On Power and Ideology (1987), Necessary Illusions:

Thought Control in Democratic Societies (1989), and

World Orders, Old and New (1994).


First language acquisition

20


First language acquisition

:

1);

2);

3);

4).


First language acquisition


First language acquisition

(language acquisition deviceLAD)


First language acquisition

,

,

,;,

,

,

,,,,

,(Thilly)

:,,

;,

:,,,

,


First language acquisition

(Chomsky, 1965,p.47-59)


First language acquisition

First language acquisition

  • Language was a creative act of the individual and that humans had an innate capacity for language,which by no means endowed by culture.

    -----Von Humboldt

  • The individuals potential for language is universal.

    ------Chomsky


First language acquisition1

First language acquisition

  • Individuals potential for acquiring any language

  • Competence (Chomsky)

  • Irrelevant to cultural differences ,nor race differences

  • A spontaneous process

  • From babyhood


First language acquisition

First Language Acquisition (FLA)first Language acquisition refers to childrens development of their first language, that is, the native language of the community in which a child has been brought up (naturally and successfully).


Stages of first language acquisition

Stages of first language acquisition

In general, children begin uttering their first words sometimes during the second year of life. During the following 4 to 5 years, linguistic development occurs quite rapidly.

the prelinguistic stage (babbling age)

3 months: /k/, /u/

3-4 months: babbling speech like sounds

6 months: able to sit up; produce a number of different vowels and consonants (meaningless), deaf baby, baby born of non-speaking deaf parents also babble


First language acquisition

  • the one-word stage holophrastic sentences

  • 2 year-old: use one word to serve a naming function, to refer to familiar people, toys, pets, drinks and objects in the childs environment, indicate certain actions and demands, or convey emotions.

  • Simple nouns and verbs

  • Very few functional words such as prep., art., and aux. verbs

  • Choose the most informative word that applies to the situation being commented upon

  • Overextension (underextension of reference): use the same word for things that have a similar appearance


First language acquisition

  • the multiword stage

  • 2-3 year-old: the salient feature of the utterances at this stage ceases to be the number of words, but the variation in strings of lexical morphemes (telegraphic speech)

  • Lacking grammatical morphemes, but following the principles of sentence formation [make no word order errors at this stage]

  • 5 year-old: has an operating vocabulary of more than 2000 words


First language acquisition

,


First language acquisition

LAD

12


First language acquisition


First language acquisition


First language acquisition


First language acquisition

,LAD


First language acquisition

35


First language acquisition

,,,


First language acquisition

.


First language acquisition

45


First language acquisition

The classical theory

Time:From1957-1965

Aim: to make linguistics a science.

Work: syntactic structure

Feature:(1)emphasis on generative ability of language

(2)introduction of transformational rules

(3)grammatical description regardless of meaning.


The classical theory

The classical theory

  • There kinds of grammar: finite state grammar, Phrase structure grammar, transformational grammar.

  • A finite state grammar is the simplest type of grammar with a finite amount of apparatus,

    can generate an infinite number of sentence.


First language acquisition

The classical theory

  • The ratsthe catthe dogchasesworriesdie.


First language acquisition

The classical theory

  • Phrase structure grammar consists of phrase structure(ps) that formalize some of the traditional insights of constituent structure analysis. Phrase structure rules are as follows:

  • (1)S NP+VP

  • (2)VP Verb+NP

  • (3)NP NP(singular)

  • NP(plural)

  • (4)NP D+N

  • (5)NP(p) D+N+S


The classical theory1

The classical theory

  • (6)D the

  • (7)N {man, ball, door, dog, book.}

  • (8)Verb Aux +V

  • (9)V {hit, take ,bite, eat}

  • (10)Aux Tense (+M) (+have+en)(+be+ing)

  • (11)Tense Present

  • Past

  • (12)M {will, can, may, shall}


First language acquisition

  • The man hit the ball.

  • NP(Det(the)N(man))VP(V(hit)NP(Det(the)N(ball))))


First language acquisition

The standard theory

  • Time :1965-1970

  • Work :Aspects of syntax

  • Problems which lead to the standard theory:

  • (1)an ordinary sentence can be transformed at will,negated ,passived, with certain added or deleted, without restrictions.

    (2)his rules may generated ill-formed sentences as well as well-formed ones. for example, with the rules S

NP+VP, and

VP

V+NP, there might be generated the following two:

S

S

NP

VP

VP

NP

V

NP

V

NP

TV

LUCY

watch

TV

LUCY

Watch


First language acquisition

The standard theory

  • In his aspects of the theory of syntax, Chomsky says that a generative grammar should consist of three components: syntactic, phonological, andsemantic.


First language acquisition

The standard theory

  • (distinctive features)


First language acquisition


The extended standard theory

The extended standard theory

  • The problems that lead to the revision of standard theory:(1)the transformational rules are too powerful, for they can move or delect linguistic segments, keep the original meaning intact, and vary according to specific circumstances.

  • (2)the standard theory holds that derived nouns have the same semantic properties with their corresponding verbs .


First language acquisition

  • Beavers build dams.

  • Dans are built by beavers.

  • Not many arrows hit the target.

  • Many arrows didnt hit the target.


The extended standard theory1

The extended standard theory

  • 1970-19791970197119731977

  • X-X-bartrace


First language acquisition

The extended standard theory

  • Chomskys second revision involves the whole theorical framework, which can be illustrated by the following diagram:


The revised extended theory

The Revised Extended Theory

Government and binding is a theory of syntax in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Chomsky in the 1980s.


First language acquisition


First language acquisition

1

2

John gave Bill a book.

3)NP

John thought that he left his bookon the table.

John give a book to Bill.


Minimalist program

minimalist program

  • minimalistprogram(me)(MP)


First language acquisition


Chomsky s influence in linguistics

Chomsky's influence in linguistics

  • The most important is that which develops a broad general critique of Chomsky's work and advances some sort of alternative. Over the last thirty years a number of alternative approaches have been developed, which share some of Chomsky's assumptions but reject others. Particularly important in my view are Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) and Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG).


First language acquisition

  • In recent years, however, a number of linguists who were once quite close to Chomsky have rejected major elements of his approach. An important one is Frederick Newmeyer, who argues against Chomsky's idea that language variety is the result of a set of innate parameters in his book Possible and Probable Languages


First language acquisition

  • In 1959, Chomsky published a review of the landmark book Burrhus Skinner Verbal Behavior in which Skinner gives an explanation and speculative behaviorist language. The linguistic behavior is defined as a learned behavior, leading to characteristic of being transmitted by the behavior already learned by other individuals, this theory provides an overall view of communicative behavior, much broader than generally accepted by linguists. Skinner's approach differs substantially from most traditional linguistic theories on the development of circumstances in which language is used, for example, ask for water use for him functionally different than involve water the word water, or that having to respond to someone who ask for water ...


First language acquisition

  • These uses functionally different asking each a different explanation, the approach contrasts sharply with traditional notions of language and approach of psycholinguistics Chomsky focuses on the mental representations of the words and the words acquired which, once learned, can appear in all functions


First language acquisition

Thank you!


  • Login