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Noam Chomsky. Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania . 06 本 1 邵丽华 高英 耿淑梅 牛利强 宋薇薇. Introduction.

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Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky was

born on December 7,

1928 in Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania

06本1

邵丽华 高英 耿淑梅

牛利强 宋薇薇


Introduction

Chomsky, Noam, in full AVRAM NOAM CHOMSKY (b. Dec. 7, 1928,Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.), American linguist and political activist who founded transformational generative grammar, an original and highly influential system of linguistic analysis.

His undergraduate and graduate years were spent at the University of

Pennsylvania where he received his PhD in linguistics in 1955. During

the years 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard

University Society of Fellows. While a Junior Fellow he completed his

doctoral dissertation entitled, "Transformational Analysis." The major

theoretical viewpoints of the dissertation appeared in the monograph

Syntactic Structure, which was published in 1957. This formed part of

a more extensive work, The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory,

circulated in mimeograph in 1955 and published in 1975.


Chomsky was introduced to the study of linguistics by his father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.


Works father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.

Chomsky's work virtually defined the methods of linguistic analysis

used in the second half of the 20th century.

Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965),

Cartesian Linguistics (1966),

The Sound Pattern of English (with Morris Halle, 1968),

Language and Mind (1968; enlarged ed., 1972),

The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1975),

and Reflections on Language (1975).

Language and Responsibility (1979)

discusses the relation of language and politics and the ramifications

of generative grammar.

Language and Problems of Knowledge (1988), further examine those

subjects.


Chomsky also became well known for his opposition to the father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.

United States' involvement in the Vietnam War during the late1960s and early '70s.

His books criticizing American foreign policy and the role

played by giant corporations and the mass media include

American Power and the New Mandarins (1969),

Towards a New Cold War (1982), Pirates & Emperors (1986),

On Power and Ideology (1987), Necessary Illusions:

Thought Control in Democratic Societies (1989), and

World Orders, Old and New (1994).


20 father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.世纪语言学理论经历了三次转向:

从历史比较语言学到传统结构主义;

从传统结构主义到美国描写结构主义,

再到转换生成语法。

在每次转向的背后都有着深刻的哲学背景。

所谓结构主义其实是描绘人关于世界的思维方式,这种思维方式对结构极为关注;

美国描写结构主义实际是站在逻辑实证主义的肩膀上;转换生成语法则带有笛卡尔、

康德唯理主义的影子


乔姆斯基的语言观背景 father, a Hebrew scholar who worked within the framework of historical linguistics. He studied under the linguist Zellig S. Harris at the University of Pennsylvania and earned bachelor's (1949) and master's (1951) degrees there. The early stages of Chomsky's theories of language appear in his University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation, "Transformational Analysis" (1955). After receiving his degree, he began teaching modern languages and linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955. He became a full professor there in 1961 and was appointed Ferrari P. Ward professor of foreign languages and linguistics in 1966.:

1)对当时生物进化论数学等学科知识的借鉴;

2)对结构主义语法和行为主义语言学的反动;

3)对柏拉图的灵魂回忆说和笛卡尔的天赋观念的扬弃;

4)对唯理语法的继承.


索绪尔认为任何一个群体都有自己的语言规律(语法)。它不是冥冥中存在的,索绪尔认为任何一个群体都有自己的语言规律(语法)。它不是冥冥中存在的,

也不是神的创造,而是这个群体交流的需要。换句话说,过去的看法认为冥冥中

存在着一条或几条千古不变的规律,它掌控了人类的语言。但是,索绪尔认为这些

语言的规律是按照某个群体的需要,不断进化和改良的结果。它有点像‘进化论’。

所不同的仅仅是,进化论是由大自然来选择,而结构主义是由有理性的人类来进行选择。这种规律—应用—问题—反馈—改正的理论就是结构主义。

它将某种语言看作一个系统,而语言的变化总是寻找最佳的解决方法。不言而喻,这样的理论,很容易被移植到社会学上。我们将一个社会看作一个系统就需要有

理论—应用—问题—反馈—改正这样一套循环系统。上个世纪下半叶,以乔姆斯基为代表的美国语言学实际上是希望推翻索绪尔的结构主义,重新回到古代的语言学。乔姆斯基认为,在人类思维的深处有一个主宰语言变化的规律,它与人们使用的表层语法是不一样的;所谓的深层结构。


他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

而是利用组句规则去理解和创造句子,句数是无限的;

②语法是生成的,儿童生下来就具有一种普遍语法,这种普遍语法的实质

就是一种大脑具有的与语言知识相关的特定状态,一种使婴儿能学会人类

任何语言的物理及相应的心理机制。婴儿就是凭借这个普遍语法去分析

和理解后天语言环境中的语言素材。婴儿言语获得过程就是由普遍语法

向个别语法转化的过程。这个转化是由先天的“语言获得装置”

(language acquisition device,LAD)实现的;

③每—个句子都有两个结构层次——深层结构和表层结构。

深层结构显示基本的句法关系,决定句子的意义;

表层结构则表示用于交际中的句子的形式,决定句子的语音等。

句子的深层结构通过转换规则变为表层结构,从而被感知和传达。


哲学上有所谓柏拉图问题他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,,即人类知识的来源问题。柏拉图有一个灵魂回忆说的理论。

(我们这里不提)笛卡尔哲学的基本原理是认为存在着一种精神实体,这种实体的本

质包含在思维属性之,而不依赖于肉体;同时,他也承认世界上还存在着一种不依赖于精

神实体的物质实体。显然这种二元论的观点不能解释观念的起源问题,从而得出人类认

识的本质是超经验的。这就是他的“天赋观念”说的根源。以此为基础,笛卡尔认为有许

多公理或原则不来自经验,是天赋的,与生俱来的,内在于人的心中的,非外来的。笛卡尔

的“天赋观念”还有另一种涵义,就是他把天赋观念等同于天赋的认识能力。梯利(Thilly)

明确地指出:“所谓天赋的知识,有时指头脑所感受的理念或真理,指灵魂于自身中发现的

真理;有时指在经验的过程中,灵魂产生这种知识的固有的能力或机能。”笛卡尔本人在

谈到天赋时说:“我既然有能力来存想一件事物,一种真理,或一种思想,则我这种能力一定

似乎是由我自己的本性中来的。”他提出认识的能力、禀赋、倾向是天赋的,而且由这种

能力产生的思想也是天赋的。


唯理论他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,乔姆斯基把儿童语言获得的刺激贫乏现象称为柏拉图问题,这清楚地表明了

他在认识论问题上的唯理论立场。经验论和唯理论不一定总是泾渭分明,

水火不容。但乔姆斯基(Chomsky, 1965,p.47-59)认为,作为两种不同的研

究知识来源的方法,把它们区分开来既有一定的历史意义,又有一定的启发

价值。特定的经验论和唯理论都可以对知识的获得提出准确的表述,尤其是

对语言习得机制的先天结构提出明确的假设。乔姆斯基批判了洛克的白板说,

认为人类大脑存在有如莱布尼兹所说的“大理石纹理”。语言天赋论实际上就

是对“大脑纹理”的性质提出的一个科学假设。


First language acquisition
First language acquisition他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

  • Language was a creative act of the individual and that humans had an innate capacity for language,which by no means endowed by culture.

    -----Von Humboldt

  • The individual’s potential for language is universal.

    ------Chomsky


First language acquisition1
First language acquisition他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

  • Individual’s potential for acquiring any language

  • Competence (Chomsky)

  • Irrelevant to cultural differences ,nor race differences

  • A spontaneous process

  • From babyhood


First Language Acquisition (FLA)他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,:first Language acquisition refers to children’s development of their first language, that is, the native language of the community in which a child has been brought up (naturally and successfully).


Stages of first language acquisition
Stages of first language acquisition他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

In general, children begin uttering their first words sometimes during the second year of life. During the following 4 to 5 years, linguistic development occurs quite rapidly.

① the prelinguistic stage (babbling age)

3 months: /k/, /u/

3-4 months: babbling speech like sounds

6 months: able to sit up; produce a number of different vowels and consonants (meaningless), deaf baby, baby born of non-speaking deaf parents also babble


  • 他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子, the one-word stage  holophrastic sentences

  • 2 year-old: use one word to serve a naming function, to refer to familiar people, toys, pets, drinks and objects in the child’s environment, indicate certain actions and demands, or convey emotions.

  • Simple nouns and verbs

  • Very few functional words such as prep., art., and aux. verbs

  • Choose the most informative word that applies to the situation being commented upon

  • Overextension (underextension of reference): use the same word for things that have a similar appearance


  • 他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子, the multiword stage

  • 2-3 year-old: the salient feature of the utterances at this stage ceases to be the number of words, but the variation in strings of lexical morphemes (telegraphic speech)

  • Lacking grammatical morphemes, but following the principles of sentence formation [make no word order errors at this stage]

  • 5 year-old: has an operating vocabulary of more than 2000 words


先天论(先天性决定论)他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

它首先是一种基于对刺激—反应论猛烈批判立场 上建立起的理论,是基于理性主义的理论。它认为语言是一种规则体系,是一种以规则为基础的复杂系统而并非习惯的总和,儿童之所以能掌握,是因为人类有天生的、具有受遗传因素决定的掌握语言规则的能力,即“语言能力”。乔姆斯基还提出了“语言运用”的概念,即说话人和听话人对语言规则的具体运用(言语活动)。语言运用以语言能力为基础。


语言能力的体现机制是“语言习得机制”(他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,LAD)

它有两个特点:

①人类独有,正常人从出生到12岁左右,该机制发生作用。

②语言习得机制可以离开人类的其他功能而存在,甚至与智力都没有什么关系。


它包括两个部分:他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

①人类语言普遍具有的特征(语言共项),共有的规则,又称为普通语法。普通语法体现了人类语言的共性,是语言中最基本的东西,适用于任何语言,高度抽象的规则。存在于所有人类语言的深层结构中。这些语言普遍原则是以参数形式出现的,处于待定状态。


它包括两个部分:他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,

①人类语言普遍具有的特征(语言共项),共有的规则,又称为普通语法。普通语法体现了人类语言的共性,是语言中最基本的东西,适用于任何语言,高度抽象的规则。存在于所有人类语言的深层结构中。这些语言普遍原则是以参数形式出现的,处于待定状态。


他指出:①语言是创造的,也即获得语言并不是去学会特定的句子,先天的判断、评价语言信息的能力

儿童能对他所接触的语言参数定值。儿童

听到一些具体的话语,首先根据语言的普遍

特征,对某一语言的结构提出假设,接着运

用评价能力对假设进行验证和评价,从而确

定母语的具体结构。即为语言的普遍范畴和

规则赋予具体数值,婴儿就获得了母语的能

力。也就是说语法规则不是由输入的材料归

纳而来的,是由语言习得机制中的普遍语法

转换而来的。


此外, 先天论还从儿童习得语言的顺序性和阶段性来强调说明语言能力是天生的,不是强化和归纳的结果。另外语言习得关键期的存在也具备先天的基础,有赖于遗传控制的生理基础。

先天论它不完全否认后天语言环境的作用,但把语言环境的作用看得非常小,只是起着激发LAD工作的作用,是第二性的。

总之先天论把儿童获得语言描绘为积极主动,充满创造性的过程,儿童获得的不是一句、一句的具体话语,而是关于语言的一系列规则。


对先天论的评价 先天论还从儿童习得语言的顺序性和阶段性来强调说明语言能力是天生的,不是强化和归纳的结果。另外语言习得关键期的存在也具备先天的基础,有赖于遗传控制的生理基础。

先天论注重儿童获得语言的先天因素和儿童的主动性、创造性,改变行为主义儿童被动模仿的观点,能解释为什么任何一个发育正常的儿童,不需要任何系统的教育都能在3-5年的时间内掌握第一语言复杂的规则体系的主要方面,能听懂他从未听过的话,说出他从未听过的句子,能解释儿童为什么产生“过度概括”的错误。


理论意义 先天论还从儿童习得语言的顺序性和阶段性来强调说明语言能力是天生的,不是强化和归纳的结果。另外语言习得关键期的存在也具备先天的基础,有赖于遗传控制的生理基础。:乔姆斯基的理论是富于启发意义和研究意义的。我们可以认识到,儿童的语言学习是主动的充满创造的过程。乔姆斯基把儿童第一语言获得同人类语言的普遍现象相联系,二者兼顾的研究视角是具有新意的。“他关于天赋的习得机制和儿童能自觉地发现语言深层结构并使其生成表层结构的论述,在语言学界产生了重要影响。”


先天论也受到不少批评 先天论还从儿童习得语言的顺序性和阶段性来强调说明语言能力是天生的,不是强化和归纳的结果。另外语言习得关键期的存在也具备先天的基础,有赖于遗传控制的生理基础。

首先这一理论是思辨的产物,无法证明儿童头脑中是否存在语言习得机制,这只是一种假说。有人说这是一个天才的假说,人们既无法证明它,也无法否定它。

是否存在着普通语法,这也是一个争论的问题.

先天论过于低估后天环境的作用。语言是约定俗成的,儿童离开社会,即使生来就有某种机制,但也无法识别或运用语法规则。


先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童4、5岁以后仍在学习较复杂的语法(如定语从句)词汇学习也是一辈子的事。


The classical theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

Time:From1957-1965

Aim: to make linguistics a science.

Work: syntactic structure

Feature:(1)emphasis on generative ability of language

(2)introduction of transformational rules

(3)grammatical description regardless of meaning.


The classical theory
The classical theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • There kinds of grammar: finite state grammar, Phrase structure grammar, transformational grammar.

  • A finite state grammar is the simplest type of grammar with a finite amount of apparatus,

    can generate an infinite number of sentence.


The classical theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • The ratsthe catthe dogchasesworriesdie.


The classical theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • Phrase structure grammar consists of phrase structure(ps) that formalize some of the traditional insights of constituent structure analysis. Phrase structure rules are as follows:

  • (1)S NP+VP

  • (2)VP Verb+NP

  • (3)NP NP(singular)

  • NP(plural)

  • (4)NP D+N

  • (5)NP(p) D+N+S


The classical theory1
The classical theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • (6)D the

  • (7)N {man, ball, door, dog, book….}

  • (8)Verb Aux +V

  • (9)V {hit, take ,bite, eat…}

  • (10)Aux Tense (+M) (+have+en)(+be+ing)

  • (11)Tense Present

  • Past

  • (12)M {will, can, may, shall…}


  • The man hit the ball.先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • NP(Det(the)N(man))VP(V(hit)NP(Det(the)N(ball))))


The standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • Time :1965-1970

  • Work :Aspects of syntax

  • Problems which lead to the standard theory:

  • (1)an ordinary sentence can be transformed at will,negated ,passived, with certain added or deleted, without restrictions.

    (2)his rules may generated ill-formed sentences as well as well-formed ones. for example, with the rules S

NP+VP, and

VP

V+NP, there might be generated the following two:

S

S

NP

VP

VP

NP

V

NP

V

NP

TV

LUCY

watch

TV

LUCY

Watch


The standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • In his aspects of the theory of syntax, Chomsky says that a generative grammar should consist of three components: syntactic, phonological, andsemantic.


The standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • 这个时期乔姆斯基对第一理论时期的观点进行了修订,区分了深层结构和表层结构、语言能力与语言运用,形成了标准理论的理论模型,这个模型包含四个部分:基础规则、转换规则、语义规则、语音规则。其中基础规则包括短语结构规则和词库和词汇插入规则,由它们生成深层结构。转换规则包括移位、删略等转换;

  • 语义部分由语义知识、语义描写、语义表达式和语义规则组成。乔姆斯基主张语义完全由深层结构决定,转换不能改变语义。语音规则按照区别性特征(distinctive features)对语音的底层表现形式进行形式描写从而得出表层的语音特征


标准理论的框架先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

语法→转换部分→表层结构→语音部分→句子的语音表 现

基础部分→深层结构(指向转换部分)→语义部分 → 句子的语义表现


The extended standard theory
The extended standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • The problems that lead to the revision of standard theory:(1)the transformational rules are too powerful, for they can move or delect linguistic segments, keep the original meaning intact, and vary according to specific circumstances.

  • (2)the standard theory holds that derived nouns have the same semantic properties with their corresponding verbs .


  • Beavers build dams.先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • Dans are built by beavers.

  • Not many arrows hit the target.

  • Many arrows didn’t hit the target.


The extended standard theory1
The extended standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • 1970年-1979年为“修正的扩充标准理论时期”,其主要作品有《关于动词名物化的一些看法》(1970)、《深层结构、表层结构及语义说明》(1971)和《转化的必要条件》(1973)、《关于形式与解释的论文集(1977)。

  • 修正的扩充标准理论时期进一步修正了规则,提出了一些新的概念,如短语规则中用了X-杠(X-bar)表示,在转换规则中引入了“虚迹”(trace),最大的变化是把部分语义解释移到表层结构中。


The extended standard theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

  • Chomsky’s second revision involves the whole theorical framework, which can be illustrated by the following diagram:

基础部分

基础规则

深层结构

转换规则

表层结构

语音规则

语义规则

语音表达

逻辑形式表达


The revised extended theory
The Revised Extended Theory先天论把语言习得机制与人类的其它功能分开,认为语言能力与智力没有直接的关系,语言能力的发展不受智力和认知能力的制约,可以先于智力的发展。这一点也不能令人信服。儿童

Government and binding is a theory of syntax in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Chomsky in the 1980s.



格理论乔母斯基规定了普遍语法包括规则系统和原则系统两大部分。六个原则系统:

1)结构格:由语境决定

例如:宾格

2)固有格

John gave Bill a book.

3)所有具有语音形式的NP必须有格

John thought that he left his bookon the table.

John give a book to Bill.


Minimalist program
minimalist program乔母斯基规定了普遍语法包括规则系统和原则系统两大部分。六个原则系统:

  • 最简方案 minimalist program (me) (MP) 生成语言学思想的最新发展,强调语言学的目标是使有关语言的说明尽可能简洁和概括。所有的表征式和派生过程应尽可能经济,标准是提出的用来解释语言现象的设置数目应尽量少(“经济原则”)——这实际上是奥卡姆剃刀的具体应用。句子结构的表征中不应有任何羡余的或多余的成分:每个成分必须充当一个角色并得到解释(“完整解释原则”)。


最简方案的基本精神乔母斯基规定了普遍语法包括规则系统和原则系统两大部分。六个原则系统:

  • 语言是完美的系统,句法也同样是完美的体系

  • 经济性原则

  • 新的句法流程

  • 新的技术手段


Chomsky s influence in linguistics
Chomsky's influence in linguistics乔母斯基规定了普遍语法包括规则系统和原则系统两大部分。六个原则系统:

  • The most important is that which develops a broad general critique of Chomsky's work and advances some sort of alternative. Over the last thirty years a number of alternative approaches have been developed, which share some of Chomsky's assumptions but reject others. Particularly important in my view are Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) and Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG).


  • In recent years, however, a number of linguists who were once quite close to Chomsky have rejected major elements of his approach. An important one is Frederick Newmeyer, who argues against Chomsky's idea that language variety is the result of a set of innate parameters in his book Possible and Probable Languages


  • In 1959, Chomsky published a review of the landmark book Burrhus Skinner Verbal Behavior in which Skinner gives an explanation and speculative behaviorist language. The linguistic behavior is defined as a learned behavior, leading to characteristic of being transmitted by the behavior already learned by other individuals, this theory provides an overall view of communicative behavior, much broader than generally accepted by linguists. Skinner's approach differs substantially from most traditional linguistic theories on the development of circumstances in which language is used, for example, ask for water use for him functionally different than involve water the word water, or that having to respond to someone who ask for water ...


  • These uses functionally different asking each a different explanation, the approach contrasts sharply with traditional notions of language and approach of psycholinguistics Chomsky focuses on the mental representations of the words and the words acquired which, once learned, can appear in all functions


Thank you! explanation, the approach contrasts sharply with traditional notions of language and approach of psycholinguistics Chomsky focuses on the mental representations of the words and the words acquired which, once learned, can appear in all functions


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