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Presented by: Rasheed Ali Cromwell, Esq. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc . © 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. © 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. © 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. © 2009 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

Presented by:

Rasheed Ali Cromwell, Esq.

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2009 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2009 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

S


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

LINES in 1992-1993

Summer 92 –Death Row (Alphas – Wisconsin)

Spring 92 K.S. Death Row –(Kappas – Illinois)

Spring 92 Deathrow 19-1 – (Omegas - Louisiana)

Spring 92 Criminal Minded –(Sigmas – North Carolina)


Spring 93 –Death Row – (Iotas – Ohio)


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

The Results

3 “Divine Nine” hazing related deaths

(1930*-1990)

5 “Divine Nine” hazing related deaths

(1990-2010)

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Brown, T., Parks, G. (2006). African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and Vision. University of Kentucky Press.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

A History of Violence

Violence is ubiquitous in American mass media.

An average American youth will witness 200,000 violent episodes on television alone before age 18.6

American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Violence and youth: psychology’s response, Volume 1: Summary report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1993.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

A History of Violence

75% of violent acts are committed without remorse, criticism, or penalty;

41% are associated with humor;

38% are committed by attractive perpetrators;

58% involve victims who show no pain

This inappropriate presentation of violence leads to inappropriate expectations of youth with regard to true violence. In particular, three major attitudes are learned:

aggression, desensitization, and victimization.8

Federman J. National television violence study I, II, and III. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996-1998

.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

The Results

3 “Divine Nine” hazing related deaths

(1930*-1990)

5 “Divine Nine” hazing related deaths

(1990-2010)

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Brown, T., Parks, G. (2006). African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and Vision. University of Kentucky Press.


The evolution of the divine nine

The Evolution of the “Divine Nine”

Snapshot #3: Reorganization/Refocus (1990 -2010)

  • New member initiation changes from a pledge process to a membership intake process

  • Pop Culture heavily influences Divine Nine

  • Generation desensitized to violence

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2008 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

Brunson, J. Frat and Soror: The African Origin of Fraternities and Sororities, 1993


The evolution of the divine nine1

The Evolution of the “Divine Nine”

Snapshot #2: Development/Expansion (1930 -1989)

  • African Americans participate in military obligations, return to college and influence African cultural traditions and customs in organizations

© 2008 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Universal principles of

Universal Principles of …


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

“In the autumn of my sophomore year, December 1932, I was initiated (Alpha Phi Alpha). In my junior year I was elected president of the Fisk chapter and, with the assistance of the interfraternity council, immediately launched a drive to eliminate hazing and reduce an intense rivalry among the fraternities and sororities. The drive was not altogether successful, but the harshest and bitterest feelings were considerably reduced.”

Franklin, John Hope, Mirror to America, pg. 46, 2005.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Foster, T. (1993). “Senufo Masking and the Art of Poro.” African Arts(Vol. 26, Number 1).

…seven-year-long initiation…


The evolution of the divine nine2

The Evolution of the “Divine Nine”

Snapshot #1: Inception/Formation (1904 -1930)

  • African cultural traditions, customs and symbolism infused into organizations

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2009 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


What our founders intended why the tradition must continue on campus

What Our Founders IntendedWhy the Tradition Must Continue on Campus…

“While NPHC affiliate organizations recognize the social aspect of Greek college life, the primary purpose and focus of member organizations remains community awareness and action through educational, economic, and cultural service activities.”

http://www.nphchq.org/about.htm

The NPHC logo is the sole property of National Pan

Hellenic Council Inc. and is used, in this manner,

for educational purposes only.

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


National programs

National Programs

Z-Hope Program

The Heart of ESP: An Extraordinary Service Program

Alpha Kappa Alpha

Zeta Phi Beta

© 2009 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Thika Memorial Medical Center in Nairobi, Kenya

Project Africare

Delta Sigma Theta

Sigma Gamma Rho

African-American Sororities


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

What Next? –Key #1– Refocus

  • Members and Non-Members

  • What is your Legacy?

  • Challenge Your Beliefs/Behavior

  • -Reposition Yourself

© 2008 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

  • Risk v. Respect

  • As an individual

  • (Spiritually, Physically, Emotionally)

  • 2. As a student (Academically)

  • 3. As a potential member/member of Divine Nine

  • 4. As a citizen of your state (Civil)

  • 5. As a citizen of your state (Criminal)

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

Be Yourself/Find Your Purpose

Achieve Academic Success

Actively Participate in a variety of Educational Programs/Activities

What Next?Key #2 – Recommit


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

What Next? –Key #3 – Live To Learn

  • Be Open to Continual Learning

  • Purposefully Network

  • Research Organizations

© 2008 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

Ross, L. (2000).The divine nine: The history of African-American fraternities and sororities.New York: Kensington Books.

Kimbrough, W. M. (2003). Black Greek 101: The culture, customs, and challenges of Black fraternities and sororities. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickson University Press.

Jones, R.L. (2004). Black haze: Violence, Sacrifice, and Manhood in Black Greek-letter fraternities. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Brown, T.L., Parks, G.S., & Phillips, C.M. (Eds.). (2005). African-American fraternities and sororities: The legacy and the vision.Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky.


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

© 2010 The Harbor Institute ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Evolution the true history of african american fraternities and 1267441

Questions or Comments? Please contact me!

Rasheed Ali Cromwell, Esq.

[email protected]

2020 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW #550

Washington, DC 20006

Twitter – @sheedyali

Facebook – The Harbor Institute


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