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Developing a Blended Learning Strategy: Instructional Media and Pedagogical Considerations. Dr. Jolly Holden Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association. The Challenge.

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slide1

Developing a Blended Learning Strategy:

Instructional Media and Pedagogical Considerations

Dr. Jolly Holden

Chairman Emeritus,

United States Distance Learning Association

the challenge
The Challenge

Driven by the demand to increase access to learning opportunities, educators and trainers are continually challenged to develop and integrate instructional delivery options and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, which leads to this question:

Q: How do you meet the demand and reduce costs and/or output without sacrificing instructional quality?

A: The development and implementation of a blended

learning strategy.

slide3

The Trainer’s Rules of Engagement

Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained.

However, to ensure a successful blended learning strategy, it is imperative you conduct a thorough media analysis while addressing the applicable components of the instructional systems design process.

“Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it.”

The e-Learning Developers Journal, June, 2005

slide4

Presentation objectives:

Define Blended Learning

Review the Evolution & Genealogy of Instructional Media

Define Learning Environments

Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations

Identify & Evaluate Instructional & Pedagogical Variables

Define Elasticity and Synchronicity

The Blended Learning Journey

This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing some variables for your consideration when developing a blended learning strategy.

Additionally, this presentation will introduce you to the concepts of synchronicity (the integration of learning environments) and elasticity(the integration of instructional media with appropriate instructional strategies).

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Blended Learning Model

Evolution of Instructional Media

Blended Learning Definitions

Learning Environments: Synchronicity

Elasticity of Blended Learning

Blended Learning Market

Learning Environment Component

Media Component

Instructional Component

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Presentation Road Map

This is the “Home” page and depicts the major topics contained in this module. The menu bar at the bottom of the screen consists of hyperlinks when clicked will direct you to that topic. On each side of the menu bar are arrow buttons that allow you to move forward and back between slides.

Note: On some screens, you will need to click the icon depicted below to view additional information. For example, click the icon for a glossary of terms used in this module.

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Blended Learning Definition

A Holistic Perspective

The delivery of instruction using multiple media*

Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment.

Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media.

* Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach

There is no universally accepted definition of blended learning. The following pages articulate several definitions representing different perspectives in an attempt to define this term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media.

A rose by any other name is still a rose...

A combination of synchronous and asynchronous experiences. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to mixed online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions).

Source: E-learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007)

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Blended Learning Definition:

An Educational Perspective*

  • Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and…
  • where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity

Note: The two core elements (online and face-to-face instruction) of the above definition were deemed critical and that it eliminated certain forms of stand-alone media such as videotape, CD-ROM, or DVD that might be used solely in a face-to-face course. It would not eliminate these media if used in a course that had both an online and a face-to-face component.

Click on the icon for a conceptual view

Click on the icon for elements comprising blended learning & online

* Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, 2005.

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Note

According to a recent report (March 2007) by the Sloan-C Foundation entitled Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States*, only 38% of surveyed universities agreed that “blended courses hold more promise than online courses” in 2004, a decrease from 46 percent agreement in 2003.

Note: The percentage of reported blended course offerings remained stable from 2002–2005 while the percentage offered online increased.

Schools report offering an average of 10.6 percent of their course sections online in 2005, up from 6.5 percent in 2003, while the respective percentages for blended offerings shown a steady decline from 2003 (6.8%) to 2005 (5.6%)

Click for Comment

Comment: In online learning for higher education, the majority of instructional content resides in printed material, i.e., the course text(s) [aka the Binded Object Oriented Knowledge System--BOOKS], delivered via mail and not online. However, the majority of the instructional content [if not all] in online learning within the training community is delivered via online.

Click on the icon for more statistics concerning penetration of online & blended courses/programs in higher education*

  • Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report: Blending In, available at http://www.blendedteaching.org/special_report_blending_in
slide9

Traditional Classroom

Online

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning (sometimes referred to as hybrid learning) is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional face-to-face classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment.

Blended Learning

However, when developing a blended learning strategy, consider all available media and leverage their specific strengths in attaining the most optimal solution.

so consider another definition as defined on the next page

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Another Definition of Blended Learning

Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies(edutechwiki, 2006, Available at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning)

More specifically…

  • To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal.
  • To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology.
  • To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training.
  • To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working.
  • Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning
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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Where [and when] it really Started

“I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this”

Although thisquotesounds as if it were referring to a new technological break- through, in reality, this profound statement was uttered by the Reverend Joseph H. Odell, D. D. (1910) in his address titled "The New Era in Education: A Study of the Psychology of Correspondence Methods of Instruction" delivered in 1910 at the dedication of the instruction building of the International Correspondence Schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

Nearly a century later, similar sentiments are still echoed today

Blended learning is “…the single greatest unrecognized trend in higher education.”

J. Young, President, Pennsylvania State University, 2002

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Evolution of Instructional Media

What does it mean? As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, permutations of the basic concept will also emerge, resulting in different applications of blended learning and further variations of the definition. Consequently, by tracing the history and genealogy of instructional media, one can establish a solid foundation by which to better understand and apply the basic constructs of blended learning.

Developing a comprehensive blended learning strategy is more than just integrating instructional media. It’s about considering all aspects of the learning event in attaining the ultimate goal:

Increasing performance.

So let’s begin the journey…

evolution of instructional media

1985

1989

National Technological University founded

Los Alamos Nat’l Labs

launches 1st nat’l conf.

on distance learning

1982

National University Teleconferencing Network founded

1996

E-learning

arrives

1971

British Open University established

1921

2005

First educational radio license issued to Latter Day Saints’ Univ.

E-learning 2.0 emerges

1987

1999

1950

US DOE launches Star Schools Project

John Chambers, CEO Cisco, speaking to the PC industry, states “e-learning will make e-mail look like a rounding error.”

Iowa State launched first educational TV programs

1993

1st online, accredited university launched [Jones Intl Univ.]

1964

PBS is created and launches education TV

1995

Prof Chris Dede coins “Distributed Learning”

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Evolution of Instructional Media

1840

Establishment of first correspondence school in Europe

1910

International Correspondence School launched in Pennsylvania

1883

One can trace the evolution of distance learning in the United States from the late 19th century, where based on our society’s egalitarian approach to education, had its early beginnings in correspondence courses [Note: Correspondence courses originated much earlier in Europe]. This timeline traces the genealogy of instructional media by depicting its early origins over 120 years ago to the application of modern communication media to meet today’s demands.

As the country grew and evolved from an agrarian society to an industrialized nation, the demand for education increased significantly. With the ensuing emergence of radio and TV, the education community quickly realized the potential of these new media and adopted them to distribute education programs to a geographically dispersed workforce.

Chautauqua [Correspondence] Institute founded in NY

Then, with the introduction of the computer, learning communities quickly realized the potential of this powerful new technology and adopted it as another delivery tool. As the computer continued to evolve, a new generation of the computer-mediated instruction arrived, culminating in the emergence of the Internet.

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Technology-enabled

(circa 1950s-1990s

  • TV (satellite & cable)
  • audio tape
  • audio graphics
  • audio conferencing

e-learning

(circa 1995-present)

Electronic-assisted

Learning

(circa 1990-present)

Computer-mediated

Learning

(circa 1970-present)

Video

Conferencing

Satellite

e-learning

Computer-based

Training (CBT)

Electronic

whiteboards

Web-based Training

Online Learning

Video tape/DVD/

ipods

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

In the beginning, there was only correspondence courses, and the concept of “blending” wasn’t born yet.

Correspondence

(1883-present)

Then along came radio and TV with its multimedia and broadcast capability, was adopted by the education community to deliver courses to a geographically dispersed workforce, particularly the agrarian population

As the technology evolved, more delivery tools emerged to where the instructional designer now has a plethora of choices that can be used singularly or integrated to create a blended learning solution.

The Family Tree of

Instructional Media

slide15

Correspondence

(1883-present)

Technology-enabled

(circa 1950s-1990s

Portability

(Handheld devices)

Wireless

(Push technology)

e-learning

(circa 1995-present)

Electronic-assisted

Learning

(circa 1990-present)

iphones

??

PDAs

??

Computer-mediated

Learning

(circa 1970-present)

Video

Conferencing

Satellite

e-learning

Electronic

whiteboards

Computer-based

Training (CBT)

Video tape/DVD/

ipods

Web-based Training

Online Learning

Virtual learning environments

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Extending the Family Tree of Instructional Media to Tomorrow

Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide you the solid foundation to ensure the learning outcomes are attained.

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

The Basics

The Learning Environment: Two Dimensions

Synchronous

Asynchronous

  • Same time/same place
  • (traditional instructor-led classroom)
  • Same time/different place
  • (virtual instructor-led classroom)
  • Different time/different place

So how are these two environments integrated as it applies to blended learning? Click the next arrow for more on synchronicity.

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

The Concept of Synchronicity

Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending

of synchronicity.

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Blended Learning

Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media.

Click for instructional media selection matrix

blended learning model components

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Blended Learning Model Components

A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation.

The second component is to determine which learning environment (synchronous/ asynchronous) best supports the instructional objectives

“Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy.”

Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007

The third component is to select the instructional strategies that support the learning objectives

The first component is used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content

blended learning model

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Instructional Component

Blended

Learning

Media

Component

Learning Environment Component

Media

Component

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Blended Learning Model

Click on any of the “Home” button icons for specific information concerning that component. For a brief summary of each component, click here.

The degree of integration is based upon evaluating each component\'s specific attributes, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the overall instructional goal.

With that said and bearing in mind this model is based upon a set of related components, that although evaluated separately, are also viewed holistically. That is to say, each component’s specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts…which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution.

Click here to view a concept map of this model

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Learning

Environment

Instructional

Media

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

The Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning

elasticity

The power of blended learning is in its

The point is this…there may be several “blended” solutions that can meet your instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra-dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media.

Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend". As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the “blend” to meet specific learning outcomes.

Learning

Environment

Learning

Environment

Instructional

Instructional

Media

Any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components.

Media

what does the research indicate

Research shows no significant difference in learning outcomes with residence instruction when appropriate media are selected

No significant relationship between learning styles and instructional media when appropriate media are selected

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

What Does the Research Indicate?

Degree of interactivity does not always correlate with performance but does affect satisfaction

The amount of interaction does not affect learning outcomes

how does the market accept blended learning

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

How Does the Market Accept Blended Learning?

Surveys from different organizations indicate...

Use Blended Learning Frequently - 39%

Use Blended Learning

Sometimes - 61%

Don\'t Use Blended Learning-15%

56% Use blended learning approach with the classroom

Source: Bersin & Associates, 2005

Use Blended Learning-85%

75% of the blended learning mix includes the traditional classroom

Source: The E-Learning Guild, 2003

international data corporation idc survey of clos use of blended learning

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

International Data Corporation (IDC) Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning

Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine(July 2007*)

The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%)

* Source: http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_article.asp?articleid=1857&zoneid=13)

international data corporation idc survey of clos use of blended learning1

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

International Data Corporation (IDC) Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning

Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine (July 2007*)

The greatest change in the delivery mix over the next 12 to 18 months will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies.

Click on the icon for IBM’s perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility

* Source: http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_article.asp?articleid=1857&zoneid=13)

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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

“When determining the most appropriate mix of learning needed to meet a company’s objectives, learning professionals must weigh the benefits of each method against the associated costs and resource requirements. [There is] an important link between content type and delivery method, and they show that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization, particularly as it relates to the more traditional forms of learning.”

“The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.”

Source: http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_article.asp?articleid=1857&zoneid=13)

consider this

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

Consider This…

"It is likely not the ‘blendedness’ that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices.“

Source: Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2 Issue 1 - February 2003. Retrieved 1/10/2007 from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/view/v2n1/coverv2n1.htm

and metaphorically speaking

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

And Metaphorically Speaking…
  • The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.
  • Richard Clark, Review of Educational Research Journal, 1993
the learning mantra why are we here

Sender

(Instructor)

Receiver

(Learner)

Collaboration

Delivery System

DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

The Learning Mantra: Why are we here?

Final Note

  • Training/education is the process
  • Learning is the outcome
  • The technology is the means
  • The learner is why we are here!
  • Focus on learning outcomes…the end result:
  • Improving human performance
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DefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

End of Presentation

Click to go back to start

learning environment component
Learning Environment Component

Asynchronous

A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal.

Distance Learning

Synchronous

Traditional Classroom

Back to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

the synchronous learning environment
The Synchronous Learning Environment

Same Time

Different Place

Advantages

  • Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity
    • Encourages spontaneity of oral responses
    • Immediate reinforcement of ideas
  • Supports activation learning strategies

such as idea generation (brainstorming)

  • Provides for peer support (social

learning theory)

    • Allows for peer-to-peer interaction
  • Structured learning environment
  • Disadvantages
  • Limited to same time
    • Required dedicated instructor
    • Does not provide for self-pacing
  • May be limited to same place

(albeit at a distance)

  • High cognitive load

Back to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

the asynchronous learning environment
The Asynchronous Learning Environment

Different Time

Different/Same

Place

Advantages

  • Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought
    • Not constrained by time
  • Delayed reinforcement of ideas
  • Provides for flexibility in delivery of content
  • Less structured learning environment
  • Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.)

Disadvantages

  • No live interaction
    • Longer completion times
    • “Just-in-time” = “do-it-on-your
    • own-time”
    • Higher non-completion rates—
    • pacing not optimized

Back to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

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media component
Media Component

Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the “most appropriate” media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected.

Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solelyon the attributes for that specific medium, but how the media may also impact the pedagogical components, e.g., the learning environment and instructional components.

Synchronicity

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Synchronous

Instructional

Media

Portability

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

taxonomy of blended learning media
Taxonomy of Blended Learning Media

The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment *

  • * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

technologies supporting blended learning

Asynchronous

  • Pre-recorded video audio (video/audio tapes, DVDs,
  • iPods/vPods, etc.)
  • CBT
  • Cable TV
  • Correspondence
  • Online (stand-alone modules)
  • Synchronous
  • Video Teleconferencing
  • Satellite e-learning
  • Audio Conferencing
  • Audio Graphics
  • Web Conferencing/SLS
  • Webinars
Technologies Supporting Blended Learning

Note: When evaluating the media component, blogs, wikis, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone, instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction.

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

slide37

Synchronous Media

Asynchronous Media

  • Satellite e-learning
  • Video Conferencing
  • Audio Conferencing
  • Audio Graphics
  • Web Conferencing/
  • SLS
  • Webinars
  • Online (Web-Based Training)
  • Computer-based Training
  • Video Tape/DVD
  • Audio Tape
  • Podcast/vodcast

Traditional Classroom

Blended Solution

Integrating Instructional Media:

A Blended Learning Approach

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

slide38

Synchronous Instructional Media

Technology

Delivery

Description

Audio

Conferencing

An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio.

Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high-resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites.

Audiographics

Synchronous Web-Based

Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems)

Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high-resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS).

Instructional Television (ITV)

ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave

slide39

Technology

Delivery

Description

Instructional Television (ITV)- con’t

towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming

programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems.

Satellite

e-learning

Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol).

Synchronous Instructional Media

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Synchronous Learning Systems (SLS)

e-Learning Guild 2007 Report

Basically, SLS is web conferencing in that it can support low-bandwidth media such as PowerPoint and Flash with audio (audio conferencing and/or VOIP), but due to bandwidth limitations, is constrained in supporting media-rich applications

  • 35% of members surveyed report they do not use a SLS (organization of all sizes)
  • 29% of members working in organizations >10,000 employees report that they do not use a SLS

Back to Taxonomy

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portability
Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices.

When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se,the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example:

Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or computer based instruction with little or no interaction between the student and instructor. Most consumer internet services are asymmetrical in that the majority of digital information is only flowing one direction for downloading.

Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical; that is to say, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions.

A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system.

Portability

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

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Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments

When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection.

High

Symmetry

Low

High

Interactivity

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instructional component variables to consider
Instructional Component: Variables to Consider

Multimedia

(aural/visual)

Rapidity of Change

Instructional Objectives

Content

Complexity

Instructional Strategies

When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. To that end, learning objectives should never be sacrificed to achieve a blended learning solution.

When integrating instructional strategies (which are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives are attained), some strategies may be more appropriate than others to achieve optimal learning.

Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media)

Asynchronous

Synchronous

Collaboration

(P2P)

* Instructor-student-instructor

Collaboration

(P2P)

Didactic#

Dialectic*

# Instructor-student

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

note on learning objectives
The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking:Note on Learning Objectives
  • Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and
  • Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog).

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What is a Learning Objective?

A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity

Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency

Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested.

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Why Developing Learning Objectives?

The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful.

Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning

Used to develop instructional strategies

Basis for media selection

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Types of Objectives

  • Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains:
    • Psychomotor
    • Affective
    • Cognitive
      • Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions

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Continuum of Cognitive Objectives

LowerHigher

Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

Learning objectives are the foundation for the development of instructional content

An metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation).

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Cognitive Domain of Learning Objectives

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Instructional Strategies

The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction

  • Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment.
  • The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies
    • Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment.
    • Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment.

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

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Table of Instructional Strategies

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Table of Instructional Strategies

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Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media

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Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media

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Source: Picciano, A.G. (February 9, 2005). Posting to the Official Website of the 2005 Sloan-C Summer Workshop held in Victoria, British Columbia.

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According to the Sloan-C Foundation, blended courses/programs are defined as having between 30 percent and 79 percent of the course content delivered online. “Face-to-face” instruction includes those courses in which zero to 29 percent of the content is delivered online (includes both traditional and web facilitated courses), and an online course is where 80%+ of the content is delivered online.

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Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report, March 2007, Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, available at: http://www.blendedteaching.org/system/files/Blending_In.pdf

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In June 2006, Eduventures conducted a national survey of 2,033 U.S. adults who identified themselves as interested in pursuing postsecondary education in the next three years. The survey was designed to improve understanding of consumer experience and interest in different delivery modes, such as online, campus-based, and blended forms of education delivery. Analysis of the survey was published by Eduventures in the report ExpandingDemand for Online Higher Education (August, 2006).

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Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report, March 2007, Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, available at: http://www.blendedteaching.org/system/files/Blending_In.pdf

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Asynchronous1

Distance Learning

Traditional Classroom

Synchronous2

Learning Environment Component

1. Different Time/ Different Place

2. Same Time/Different Place

Blended Learning Model Concept Map

Instructional Objectives

Blended

Learning

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Instructional Component

Media

Component

Content

Instructional

Strategies

Symmetry

Synchronicity

Rapidity of Change

Complexity

Synchronous

Instructional

Media

Asymmetrical

Media

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Multimedia

(aural/visual)

Interactivity

Symmetrical

Media

Portability

Asynchronous

Synchronous

Collaboration

(P2P)

Collaboration

(P2P)

Didactic#

Dialectic*

# Instructor-student

* Instructor-student-instructor

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Start

Is a synchronous learning environment required?

Yes

No

Is there a visual requirement?

Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites?

Yes

No

Yes

No

Satellite IP

(wireless)

Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student?

Audio Conferencing

DVD/Video Tape/

Ground Shipment

Yes

Is there a visual requirement?

Yes

No

Yes

No

VTC

Is there a requirement for video & audio?

Is there an audio requirement?

Is there an audio requirement?

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Instructional TV

Synchronous WBI

(narrowband)

Audio Tape

Print

Video Tape

Print

Satellite e-learning

Computer -Based Instruction

Audiographics

Asynchronous WBI

Synchronous WBI

(broadband)

Instructional TV

VTC

Synchronous Learning Environment

Asynchronous Learning Environment

Instructional Media Selection Matrix

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Blended Learning Analogy:

A War fighter’s Perspective

Just as technology can be a force multiplier when applied to the battle field to attain superiority, instructional technology can also become an educational force multiplier when applied to a learning environment.

To that end, you would leverage your war fighting assets based on the specific attributes of each asset to accomplish the mission objective (instructional objectives), the instructional designer would also allocate assets (instructional media) based on their specific attributes and a specific learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous).

Therefore, from an instructional designer’s perspective, you select the most appropriate media (asset) for the right [learning] environment (synchronous/asynchronous) using the right [instructional] strategies.

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summarizing the media component

Symmetry

Synchronicity

Asymmetrical

Media

Synchronous

Instructional

Media

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Symmetrical

Media

Portability

Summarizing:The Media Component

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

  • While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content.
  • Variables to consider:
    • Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution)
    • Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content
    • Ability to update content quickly
    • Technological infrastructure
    • Capital & recurring costs
      • Bandwidth
      • Hardware end points
    • Portability
    • Simplex (one-way) data vs. duplex (2-way data)

Media

Component

summarizing the learning environment component

Asynchronous

Distance Learning

Traditional Classroom

Synchronous

Summarizing:The Learning Environment Component
  • Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both?
  • Variables to consider:
    • Time & space
      • Live interaction
      • Collaboration
      • Pacing
      • Flexibility in content delivery
      • Timeliness of completion
      • Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed)
      • Reflection of ideas

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

summarizing the instructional component

Instructional

Strategies

Instructional Objectives

Content

Rapidity of Change

Complexity

Multimedia

(aural/visual)

Interactivity

Asynchronous

Synchronous

Collaboration

(P2P)

Collaboration

(P2P)

Didactic

Dialectic

Summarizing:The Instructional Component
  • Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels.
  • Variables to consider:
    • Level of interactivity
      • Spontaneity
      • Collaboration
      • Peer-to-peer
      • Instructor-student (didactic)
      • Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic)
    • Cognitive load
    • Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed)
    • Rapidity of content change
    • Complexity of content
    • Media richness (motion characteristics, visual clarity)

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

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Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies

Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning

Video Teleconferencing

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations

Web Conferencing

Audio Conferencing

Audio Graphics

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
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Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies

Pre-recorded video

(CD/DVD, vodcast, tape)

Webinars

Computer-based Instruction

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Drill & Practice
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Drill & Practice

Pre-recorded audio

(podcast, cassette, CD)

Correspondence

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Case Studies
  • Drill & Practice
  • Narration (Lecture)
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portability an ibm workforce mobility perspective
Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective*

Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep today’s learners engaged.

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* Source: On demand learning: blended learning for today’s evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at:: http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/gw510-6396-on-demand-learning.pdf

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Glossary

Asynchronous learning environment is when communication between the instructor and the student is not real-time.

Asynchronous media is a type of delivery medium that only supports communication between the sender and receive one-way, and does not occur in real time.

Behavorialism (behavioral learning theory) is mostly concerned with observable output and does not place any emphasis on the social context of learning. In a behavioral model of instruction the mind is viewed as a “black box” in the sense that response to stimuli can be observed and anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured and where conditioning refers to the strengthening of [desired] behavior which results from reinforcement. Through the use of reinforcement in a predominantly individualized system of instruction, behaviorists seek to increase the number or strength of correct student responses.Under most circumstances, behaviorism is an excellent approach for assessing a learners knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject.

Cognitive Levels.In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Cognitivism (cognitive learning theory) comes from the perspective that students actively process information and that learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organize, store, and then find relationships between information, linking old to new knowledge. Cognitive theorists believe that much learning occurs with associations through contiguity and repetition and acknowledges the importance of reinforcement. Cognitive theorists believe that human beings need to acquire and reorganize information into cognitive structures that are understandable. Note: Circa 1960, psychologists began to realize there were many aspects of learning that behavioral theorists could not account for in explaining some of the inconsistencies in learning, so cognitive theory was thrust into the forefront. However, the beginning of cognitive theory can be traced as far back as the 1920’s.

Constructivism is a view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. Constructivist approaches to learning assume that subjectivity is critical because learners take in information and process it in unique ways that reflect their needs, dispositions, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. The basic idea of constructivism is that knowledge must be constructed by the learner, it cannot be supplied by the teacher.

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Dialectic. Discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; in a learning environment, the inquiry method by which the instructor and student engage in question and answering.

Didactic. Designed or intended to teach; intended to convey instruction and information. In a learning environment, the transfer of information is primarily one-way from the instructor to the student as in a lecture.

Distance Learning. The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction; also, structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of the instructor.

Distance Education. Institutionally based formal education where the learning group is separated and where interactive communications systems are used to connect instructors, learners, and resources.

e-Learning. The delivery of content via the Internet, intranet-extranet, audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM; also, the educational content, learning services, and delivery solutions that support and enable network-based learning that is either asynchronous or synchronous; instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology.

Instructional mediaincludes all means of delivering instruction via various delivery mediums including printed material (correspondence courses) and electronic devices such as computers, cable TV, satellite, electronic whiteboards, audio/video tapes, audio and videoconferencing systems, ipods, PDAs, cell phones, etc., using either wireless or wireline technologies.

Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Educational Technology a more broader term but used synonymously with IT.

Pedagogy. The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill.

Synchronous learning environment supports live (real time), two-way oral and/or visual communications between the instructor and the student.

Synchronous media is any type of delivery medium that supports real time communication both ways between the sender and receive.

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