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Database Administration. Chapter 16. Need for Databases. Data is used by different people, in different departments, for different reasons Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful formats Distribution of data and information To the right people At the right time Data Preservation

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Need for databases l.jpg
Need for Databases

  • Data is used by different people, in different departments, for different reasons

  • Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful formats

  • Distribution of data and information

    • To the right people

    • At the right time

  • Data Preservation

  • Control over Data Duplication and Use


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Role of the Database

  • Primary Role: To Support Managerial Decision Making at All Levels of the Organization

    • Top Level  Strategic Decisions

    • Middle Management  Tactical Decisions

    • Operational Management  Daily, Operational Decisions

  • DBMS must provide each level a separate view of the data and support their specialized decision making roles

  • Provide a seamless flow of information throughout the company


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Top Level Management

  • Provide information for strategic decision making, strategic planning, policy formation, and goals definitions

  • Provide access to data to identify growth opportunities

  • Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies

  • Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company

    • Ways to reduce cost

    • Increase Productivity

  • Provide feedback on whether the company is achieving its goals


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Middle Management

  • Provide necessary data for tactical decision making and planning

  • Monitor and control the use of company resources

    • How efficiently are the resources allocated and used (including data)

    • What potential or current operational problems exist

    • Evaluate the performance of the different departments

  • Provide a framework for ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database


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Operational Management

  • Represent and support the company operations

  • Produce query results within set performance levels

  • Enhance short-term operational ability

    • Timely information for Customer Support

    • Support for application development and computer operations


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Special Database Considerations

  • Having a database does not mean the data will be use properly, efficiently, correctly

  • DBMS is just a tool for managing data – it must be used correctly  effective management and use

  • 3 Main Processes for implementing a DBMS

    • Technological  DBMS software and hardware

    • Managerial  Administrative Functions

    • Cultural  Corporate Resistance to Change


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Evolution of the DBA

  • Data Processing Department

  • Information Systems Department

    • Service Function to provide end users active data management support

    • Production Function to provide solutions to information needs (application development)

  • DBA – Database Administration

    • Size and Role varies from company to company

    • DBA’s function is very dynamic

      • Distributed Databases

      • Internet Databases

      • Object Oriented databases

      • Sophistication and Power of the DBMS packages


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Common Functions of DBA

  • Database Planning

    • Standards, procedures, enforcement

  • Requirements Gathering and Conceptual Design

  • Logical Design

  • Physical Design and Implementation

  • Testing and Debugging

  • Operations and Maintenance

  • Training and Support

    (Follows the requirements of the DBLC phases)


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DBA’s Managerial Role

  • Control and Planning Dimensions of Database Administration

    • Coordinating, Monitoring, and Allocating database administration resources

      • People

      • Data

    • Defining Goals and Formulating Strategic Plans for the Database Administration function



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End-User Support

  • User Requirements Gathering

    • Understanding of the users’ views and needs

    • Present and Future information needs

  • Conflict and Problem Resolution

    • Solutions in one department may cause problems in another

  • Finding Solutions to Information Needs

  • Ensure Quality and Integrity of Applications and Data

  • Build End-User Confidence

  • Manage the Training and Support of DBMS users


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Policies, Procedures, and Standards

  • Policies: General Statements of Direction or action that communicate and support DBA goals

  • Procedures: Written Instructions that describe a services of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity

  • Standards: More detailed and specific than policies, and describe the minimum requirements of a DBA activity

    • Rules that are used to evaluate the qualityof the activity


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Areas of Policies and Procedures

  • End-User database requirements gathering

  • Database design and modeling

  • Documentation and Naming conventions

  • Design, coding, and testing of applications

  • Database software selection

  • Database security and integrity

  • Database backup and recovery

  • Database maintenance and operation

  • End-user training


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Data Security, Privacy and Integrity

  • User Access Management

    • Define each user to the database

      • Operating System Level

      • Database Level

    • Assign Passwords

    • Define User Groups

    • Assign Access Privileges

      • Read

      • Write

      • Delete

    • Physical Access Control

  • View Definitions

    • Protect and Control the Scope of the Data that is accessible to a user

  • DBMS utilities access control

    • Limit the use of query and reporting tools

  • DBMS usage Monitoring

    • Audit Logs

      (More difficult in distributed databases)


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Data Backup and Recovery

  • Disaster Management

    • Periodic Data and Application Backups

      • Full

      • Incremental

      • Concurrent

    • Proper Backup Identification

    • Convenient and safe backup storage

    • Physical protection of hardware and software

    • Personal Access Control to the software of a database installation

    • Insurance Coverate for the data in the database


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Data Backup and Recovery

  • Recovery and Contingency plans

    • Tested

    • Evaluated

    • Practiced

  • Will Not Recover all components of an IS

    • Establish priorities for the nature and extend of the data recovery process


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Data Distribution and Use

  • Data is only useful when:

    • Given to the Right User

    • Right Time

    • Right Format

  • Programmers Deliver programs to access data

    • Time consuming for DBA

  • Data Distribution allows end users to access the database

    • Internet

    • Intranets

    • Queries, Web Front Ends

    • End Users may make improper use of database, data duplication, etc.


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DBA’s Technical Role

  • DBMS and utilities, evaluation, selection and installation

  • Design and implementation of Database

  • Testing and Evaluation

  • Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications

  • Training and Supporting Users

  • Maintenance of DBMS, Utilities, and Applicaitons


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Evaluation, Selection, and Installation

  • Selection of Hardware and Software

  • Must be based on the Organization’s Needs

  • Search is for a solutions to a problem, not a need for a software

  • 1st step is to determine companies NEEDS


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DBMS Checklist

  • DBMS Model

  • Storage Capacity

  • Application Development Support

  • Security and Integrity

  • Backup and Recovery

  • Concurrency Control

  • Performance

  • DBA tools

  • Interoperability and Data Distribution

  • Portability

  • Hardware

  • Data Dictionary

  • Vendor Training and Support

  • Third Party Tools

  • Cost


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Design and Implementation

  • Determination and Enforcement of Standards and Procedures

  • Ensure the Design activities are performed within the Standards and Procedures

  • Ensure Transactions are:

    • Correct

    • Efficient

    • Compliant with Integrity and Standards

  • Physical Design

  • Operational Procedures


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Testing and Evaluation

  • All Database and End User Applications

  • Maintained Independently of Development and Implementation

  • Cover:

    • Technical Aspects

      • Backup, Recovery, Security, Integrity, SQL

    • Evaluation of Documentation

    • Observance of Standards

      • Naming, Documentation, Coding

    • Data Duplication Conflicts with existing data

    • Enforcement of Data Validation rules


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Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications

  • System Support

    • Day-to-day activity of the DBMS

  • Performance monitoring and tuning

    • Performance Goals

    • Evaluate if performance objectives are being met

    • Isolate Problems and Find solutions

    • Implement solutions

  • Backup and Recovery

  • Security auditing and monitoring

    • Appropriate access rights

    • Proper use of access privileges by programmers and end users


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Training and Supporting Users

  • Technical Training in the use of DBMS and Utilities for Applications Programmers

  • Unscheduled on-demand technical support

  • Interaction with DBMS vendors


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Maintenance of DBMS

  • Dedicated to the Preservation of the DBMS environment

  • Management of the Physical or Secondary Storage devices

    • Reorganizing the physical location of the data

  • Upgrading the DBMS and Utility Software

  • Exchange of data is dissimilar formats or between database


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Database Administration Tools

  • Data Dictionary

    • Store the Description of all objects that interact with the database

      • Integrated  limited to data of DBMS

      • Standalone  Include data outside of DBMS

  • Case Tools

    • Computer Aided Software Engineering

    • Automated Framework for the SDLC

      • Front-End Tools

        • Planning, Analysis, Design

      • Back-End Tools

        • Coding and Implementation


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Data Dictionary

  • Data Elements from all tables of all databases

    • Names, Types, Format, Validation rules, When an Element is Used and by whom

  • Tables defined in the database

  • Indexes defined for each table

  • Defined databases, and properties

  • End Users and Administrators

  • Programs that access the database

  • Access Authorizations for all users

  • Relationships among data elements


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Case Tools

  • Reduction in development time and costs

  • Automation of the SDLC

  • Standardization of Systems Development Methodologies

  • Easier Maintenance of Application Systems Developed with CASE Tools

  • Components:

    • Graphics

    • Screen Painters and Report Generators

    • Repository for Storing and Cross-Referencing the System Design Data (Data Dictionary)

    • Analysis Segment for Automated Check on System Consistency, Syntax, Completeness

    • Program Documentation Generator


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