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The mass-energy budget of the ionised outflow in NGC 7469

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The mass-energy budget of the ionised outflow in NGC 7469. Alexander J. Blustin. STFC Postdoctoral Fellow, UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory.

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slide1

The mass-energy budget of the ionised outflow in NGC 7469

Alexander J. Blustin

STFC Postdoctoral Fellow, UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory

In collaboration with G. Kriss (STSCI), T. Holczer (Technion), E. Behar (Technion), J. Kaastra (SRON), M. Page (UCL-MSSL), S. Kaspi (Tel-Aviv), G. Branduardi-Raymont (UCL-MSSL), K. Steenbrugge (Oxford)

Chandra X-ray Gratings Meeting, Cambridge, MA, 11th July 2007

slide2

UV absorption – less ionised

Kriss, Blustin et al. 2003, A&A 403, 473

What is the total mass-energy output through an AGN wind?

How biased is this by the waveband in which we do the spectroscopy?

X-ray absorption – more ionised

Blustin et al. 2007, 466, 107

ionised wind

Artist’s impression of ionised wind in nuclear region of a galaxy (A. Blustin)

slide3

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

Dataset and spectral continuum

  • NGC 7469 (z = 0.0164) is an X-ray and UV bright Seyfert with a low-column warm absorber
  • 164 ks with XMM-Newton, obtained in Nov/Dec 2004
  • Highest signal-to-noise X-ray grating and CCD spectra yet obtained for this source

Basic form of spectral continuum obtained from EPIC-pn: power-law (G = 1.81) plus soft excess (we used a 0.144 keV blackbody component). Significant soft X-ray residuals are visible

slide4

The X-ray absorption and emission features

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

Significance of narrow spectral features

Dc2 = 16 implies 4s significance

slide5

Fitting individual ionic columns

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

Ion-by-ion (slab in SPEX) absorber model superimposed on RGS data

Individual ion columns

slide6

Absorption Measure Distribution (AMD)

The AMD expresses the total line-of-sight column density as an integral over its distribution in log x

NHtotal = (3.3 ± 0.8) x 1021 cm-2

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

Two main ionisation regimes: most gas at higher levels of ionisation

See talk by Tomer Holczer for more details on AMDs

slide7

Photoionised absorber modelling

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

Scott et al. 2005 SED for Chandra/FUSE data

Blustin et al. 2007 SED for XMM-Newton data

Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) used to calculate SPEX xabs photoionised absorber model has PN spectral slope, and is normalised using fluxes from RGS and OM

slide8

Photoionised absorber modelling

3 absorber components:

X-ray 1

X-ray 2

X-ray 3

Log x = 0.8+0.4-0.3

Log NH = 19.5 ± 0.2 cm-2

v = -2300 ± 200 km s-1

Log x = 2.73 ± 0.03

Log NH = 21.30+0.04-0.05 cm-2

v = -720 ± 50 km s-1

Log x = 3.56+0.08-0.07

Log NH = 21.5 ± 0.1 cm-2

v = -580+80-50 km s-1

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

slide10

UV properties from

Scott et al. 2005

Comparison with UV-absorbing outflow

Ionic columns (1014 cm-2)

Log x

v (km/s)

NCIV

NNV

NHI

UV 1 1.61 562 ± 6 0.98 ± 0.09 2.9 ± 0.8 7 ± 2

UV2 0.51 1901 ± 6 2.0 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.2 2.4 ±0.5

X-ray 1 0.8+0.4-0.3 2300 ± 200 1.6 3.4 6.2

X-ray 2 2.73 ± 0.03 720 ± 50 n/a 0.00091 n/a

X-ray 3 3.56+0.08-0.07 580+80-50 n/a n/a n/a

slide11

UV properties from

Scott et al. 2005

Comparison with UV-absorbing outflow

Ionic columns (1014 cm-2)

Log x

v (km/s)

NCIV

NNV

NHI

UV 1 1.61 562 ± 6 0.98 ± 0.09 2.9 ± 0.8 7 ± 2

UV2 0.51 1901 ± 6 2.0 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.2 2.4 ±0.5

X-ray 1 0.8+0.4-0.3 2300 ± 200 1.6 3.4 6.2

X-ray 2 2.73 ± 0.03 720 ± 50 n/a 0.00091 n/a

X-ray 3 3.56+0.08-0.07 580+80-50 n/a n/a n/a

Identify UV component 2 with X-ray component 1

slide12

The location of the soft X-ray/UV absorbing outflow

Distance estimates:

Rmin from escape velocity

Rmax from DR/R ≤ 1

Outflow component

Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

slide13

Momentum of outflowing matter

Momentum of radiation absorbed and scattered by wind

~

Calculating the mass and energy transport of the outflow

.

1.23 mproton Lion Cv v W

Mass outflow rate, Mout ~

x

Volume filling factor of the outflow obtained from the assumption that, for a radiatively driven wind:

Blustin et al. 2005, A&A 431, 111

slide14

.

1

Mout v2

2

Calculating the mass and energy transport of the outflow

.

1.23 mproton Lion Cv v W

Mass outflow rate, Mout ~

x

(Labs + Lscatt) x

Volume filling factor, Cv ~

1.23 mproton c Lion v2W

Kinetic luminosity, LKEout =

Blustin et al. 2005, A&A 431, 111

slide15

The mass-energy output of NGC 7469

Mass outflow rate

(Solar masses per year)

Log Kinetic Luminosity

(erg s-1)

X-ray component 1 0.002 39.6

X-ray component 2 0.03 39.7

X-ray component 3 0.02 39.4

UV component 1 0.006 38.7

UV component 2 0.0004 38.7

slide16

The mass-energy output of NGC 7469

Mass outflow rate

(Solar masses per year)

Log Kinetic Luminosity

(erg s-1)

X-ray component 1 0.002 39.6

X-ray component 2 0.03 39.7

X-ray component 3 0.02 39.4

UV component 1 0.006 38.7

UV component 2 0.0004 38.7

The same gas

slide17

The mass-energy output of NGC 7469

Mass outflow rate

(Solar masses per year)

Log Kinetic Luminosity

(erg s-1)

X-ray component 1 0.002 39.6

X-ray component 2 0.03 39.7

X-ray component 3 0.02 39.4

UV component 1 0.006 38.7

UV component 2 0.0004 38.7

Total 0.06 40.1

The same gas

Using the X-ray phase properties for X1/UV2

slide18

Conclusions

  • We estimate that ~90% of the mass outflow rate and ~95% of the kinetic luminosity are associated with the soft X-ray absorbing components in this object.
  • For a complete picture, we would also want to look at the highest-ionisation gas absorbing above 6 keV.
  • Is this also the case for distant X-ray faint AGN (e.g. BALQSOs) for which we can only do optical spectroscopy? This has implications for attempts to infer the mass-energy output of cosmologically-interesting AGN winds from their rest-frame UV spectra.

For further details see Blustin et al. 2007, A&A 466, 107

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