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Communication for Behaviour and Social Change. Making a difference through communication!. Presentation Objectives. By the end of this presentation, you should be able to: describe the steps in developing a communication strategy; explain CSBC programme needs and challenges.

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Communication for behaviour and social change l.jpg

Communication for Behaviour and Social Change

Making a difference through communication!

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Presentation Objectives

By the end of this presentation, you should be able to:

  • describe the steps in developing a communication strategy;

  • explain CSBC programme needs and challenges.

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Communication for Social and Behaviour Change

Communication for Social and Behaviour Change or CSBC is a wide range of activities and interventions targeted to specific individuals and groups that are intended to facilitate and promote selected changes in behaviour to mitigate HIV transmission and to strengthen care and support of those who are infected and/or affected by HIV and AIDS.

The interventions should enable individuals and groups to sustain positive behaviours to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS.

CSBC is developed within a framework and through the creation of communication strategies which focus on the lifestyle and social needs of individuals, their families, and the communities they live in.

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The Purpose of CSBC

The purpose of CSBC is to help people gain the awareness, knowledge, skills and attitudes as well as the ability to meet their developmental needs.

CSBC is:

  • centered around people, that is based on an audiences' needs and perceptions;

  • interactive;

  • developed through partnership and collaboration with audiences;

  • integrated into existing and new social service programming and people's lives;

  • learning and action based, in other words, oriented to helping people understand issues and then be able to act in ways that improve their health, education or economic well being.

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Role of CSBC in HIV and AIDS

  • Increase knowledge

  • Stimulate community dialogue

  • Promote essential attitude change

  • Advocate for policy changes

  • Create a demand for information and services

  • Reduce stigma and discrimination

  • Promote services for prevention and care

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Role of CSBC in a Comprehensive HIV and AIDS Programme



Care and






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Goals of Communication for Social and Behaviour Change for HIV and AIDS

  • Safer sex practices (abstinence, delayed debut, less partners, condom use)

  • Improved health care seeking behavior for STIs, TB

  • Promote VCT and other services (MTCT)

  • Create a demand for HIV/AIDS information

  • Harm reduction of IDU (safer injecting)

  • Stimulate community discussion on risk

  • Reduce stigma and discrimination

  • Blood safety -- better practices, recruitment

  • Health worker attitudes and practices

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Guiding Principles of CSBC HIV and AIDS

  • Integrated comprehensive HIV and AIDS interventions and/or programmes

  • Based on systematic formative assessment

  • Developed with active participation of the stakeholders and the community

  • Uses a variety of communication channels

  • Monitoring and evaluation planned at the beginning and implemented throughout the life of the intervention

  • Involvement of PLWA

  • Positive and action oriented

  • Messages and materials are pre-tested

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Unaware HIV and AIDS




Motivated to change

Trial behavior


Sustained behavior change

Behavior Change Process Theory

Mass Media

Community networks and traditional media

Interpersonal/ group communication

Stages of Change


Enabling Factors






User friendly

services, and



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Possible Channels of Communication HIV and AIDS

Mass media: radio, TV, events

Traditional media, puppet shows,

music drama

Print support materials

  • Interpersonal communication

  • Peer education

  • Health workers

  • NGOs/CBOs

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Partners HIV and AIDS

Local and state government

Faith-based organizations

Unions – teachers, transport workers


Non-governmental organizations

Health care providers

Women’s organizations

Medical associations



Print materials



Peer education


Community events

Social networks (church, unions, military, women’s groups)

Possible Partners and Channels

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Mass Media HIV and AIDS

  • Targeted to general community

  • Increases acceptance of and empathy for community initiatives

  • Helps to create positive image of condom use

  • Increases personal risk assessment

  • Tackles issue of stigma

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Interpersonal Communication HIV and AIDS

  • Outreach – with support tools

  • Peer education – with support tools

  • Local media – drama, puppets, etc.

  • Targeted materials for specific groups

  • Materials for health care workers

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Developing an Effective CSBC Strategy HIV and AIDS


Programme Goals


Stakeholder Involvement


Identify Target Audience






Segment Target Population


Define Behavior Change Objectives


Feedback and Revision


Design BCC Strategy and M&E Plan


Monitoring and Evaluation

8. Develop




Pre-test Materials


Implement and Monitor

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1. HIV and AIDSProgramme Goals

  • CSBC is based on the overall goals of the HIV and AIDS programme.

  • A programme goal may be to decrease prevalence of HIV among a certain population group.

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2. HIV and AIDSStakeholder Involvement

  • Avoids future backlash.

  • Forges links for coordination and collaboration.

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3. HIV and AIDSIdentify Target Audience

  • Risk behavior

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Location

  • Ethnicity

  • Language

  • Primary and secondary target audiences

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4. HIV and AIDSConduct Formative Assessment

  • Perceptions of risk

  • Settings for risk

  • Opinion leaders/Change Agents

  • Services

  • Barriers to behavior change

  • Perceived key benefits

  • Media habits and entertainment habits

  • Health care seeking behaviors

  • Hopes and fears for the future

  • Communication resources and infrastructure

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5. HIV and AIDSSegment Target Population

  • Primary populations

    • Those at high risk or vulnerability

    • Those providing services

    • Policy makers

  • Secondary populations that influence the primary populations ability to adopt or maintain safe behaviors

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6. HIV and AIDSDefine Behavior Change Objectives

  • Increase use of condoms

  • Increase use of services

  • Delay of sexual activity

  • Reduction in number of partners

  • Community’s ability to discuss risk and stigma

  • Betterment of health provider attitude

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Examples of CSBC Objectives HIV and AIDS

  • Programme Objective

    • Reduce prevalence of STIs among truck drivers

  • Behavior Change Objective

    • Increase condom use

    • Reduction in number of partners

    • Increase appropriate STI seeking behavior

  • Communication Objective

    • Increase self risk perception

    • Increase demand for information and STI services

    • Increase demand for condoms

    • Change in attitude about condom use and number of partners

    • Increase skill in condom use

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7. HIV and AIDSDesign CSBC Strategy and M&E Plan

  • Elements:

    • CSBC Objectives

    • Theme/Entry Point

    • Messages

    • Channels

    • M and E Plan

    • Partners

    • Resources

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8. HIV and AIDSDevelop Communications Materials

  • To disseminate messages

  • Support print materials

  • Mass media materials

  • Spot development

  • Advocacy materials

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9. HIV and AIDSPre-test Materials

Test for:

  • Comprehension

  • Attraction

  • Persuasion

  • Acceptability

  • Audience identification

  • Promotes action

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10. HIV and AIDSImplementation and Monitoring

  • Sequencing of activities

  • Coordination

  • Link to services

  • Interactive

  • Synergy of channels

  • Flexible

  • Target Interventions

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11. HIV and AIDSMonitoring and Evaluation

  • Monitoring

  • Inputs and outputs

  • Pulse on perceptions

  • Evaluation

  • BSS Findings

  • Special Studies

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12. HIV and AIDSFeedback and Revision

  • Communication is not static

  • Needs of community change over time

  • CSBC is constantly changing

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Summary: CSBC Programme Needs HIV and AIDS

  • Understand and use CSBC processes and principles, management, and planning.

  • Develop a coordinated delivery plan.

  • Establish quality standards.

  • Build well trained staff to provide a quality service.

  • Ensure availability of supplies, updated to meet changing needs and situations of target audience.

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Summary: CSBC Programme Needs HIV and AIDS

  • Provide monitoring and logistic support for the staff and their work.

  • Monitor and maintain relationships among implementing agencies, beneficiaries and stakeholders.

  • Hold periodical review and evaluation of both the system and the results.

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Challenges HIV and AIDS

  • Integrating CSBC into all programme elements

  • Limited training resources

  • Political and physical environments

  • Sustainability and flexibility

  • Expanding the response

  • Linkages and coordination

  • Developing sound CSBC objectives

  • Developing capacity in CSBC

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Conclusion HIV and AIDS

  • CSBC is not a collection of different, isolated communication tactics, but rather, it is a framework of linked approaches that function as part of an on-going, interactive process.