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Biodiversity Target in EU Development Cooperation: Key Challenges for the Future Jean-Claude Jacques Head IUCN Representation to the EU [email protected] The International Union for Conservation of Nature What is IUCN? The International Union for Conservation of Nature

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Biodiversity Target in EU Development Cooperation: Key Challenges for the Future

Jean-Claude Jacques

Head IUCN Representation to the EU

[email protected]

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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What is IUCN?The International Union for Conservation of Nature

  • An International Organisation with hybrid membership

    - 80 States

    - 115 Governmental Agencies

    - 850 NGOs

  • A presence in 160 countries worldwide

  • A unique expertise through its 6 thematic commissions and 11,000 experts

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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What is IUCN doing?

  • Providing scientific expertise on biodiversity issues

    - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

    - IUCN Categories of Protected Areas

    - Natural World Heritage Sites (for UNESCO)

  • Implementing large scale programmes on key biodiversity issues such as:

    - Water: Water and Nature Initiative (WANI)

    - Forestry: Livelihoods and Landscape Strategy

    - Ocean: Protect Planet Ocean

  • Advising governments and environmental conventions (UN observer status)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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The importance of Biodiversity in ACP Countries

All plants and animals used in agriculture are derived from wild species

  • Genes of wild species can be instrumental in protecting crops and cattle against pests and diseases

  • Many other species could have a potential interest but are not known yet

    Agriculture could not survive without key ecosystem services such as:

  • Fertility of soil: provided by 6,600 kg/ha of living organisms

  • Pollination: 90% of flowering plants need animal pollinators

  • Water: provided by forest cover in the upper part of river basins

  • Shadow for coffee or cocoa plantations, …

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Ecosystem Services(Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Findings – 2005)


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Status of Biodiversity

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

  • Total number of species: 8-14 millions

  • Species described: 1.8 million

  • Species assessed: 45,000

  • Species in danger: 17,000 (38%)

  • Species Extinction Rates: 100 to 1000 times higher now

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Status of Ecosystems

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment

  • 60% of ecosystem services are degraded

  • Regions facing the greatest challenges in achieving the MDGs coincide with regions facing the greatest problems of ecosystem degradation

  • The total economic value associated with managing ecosystems sustainably is often higher than the value associated with conversion

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Conservation versus Conversion(The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity – 2009)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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What can be done?An ecological paradigm: Diversity = Stability

Keep a diverse environment

  • Set up a network of protected areas and corridors ensuring the protection of:

    - 10% of major ecosystems

    - 80% of species

    - All critical ecosystem services (water, wood, pollination, soil fertility, breeding)

  • Diversify the farming landscape: Agroforestry

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Improve the long term management of biodiversity

  • Develop land use planning and resolve land tenure

  • Decentralise the management of biodiversity to local communities

  • Give incentives to sustainable management: Eco-certification

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Development CooperationA complete set of policy commitments

  • The European Consensus on Development – 2005

  • The EU Biodiversity Action Plan to 2010 – and beyond – 2006

  • The EU Council conclusions on the Message from Paris – 2006

  • The EU Council conclusions on integrating environment in development cooperation – 2009

  • OECD Policy Statement on integrating biodiversity into development cooperation (under preparation)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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But an Implementation Gap

  • No substantial increase in EC development funds for biodiversity from 9th to 10th EDF

  • Concentration of EU ODA on focal areas and budget support

  • Very limited human capacity in EC Delegations

  • Very limited involvement of environmental CSOs in the EDF Mid Term Review

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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The Road Ahead

Build on long term commitments

  • Conservation Trust Funds

  • Success stories:

    - ECOFAC -Programme de conservation et valorisation des écosystèmes forestiers d’Afrique centrale

    - Plan de convergence de la COMIFAC – Commission ministérielle des forêts d’Afrique centrale

    Engage more with local/indigenous communities

  • Set up a European Small Grant Facility to support local NGOs as well as community-based organisations

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Mainstream Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in EU Development Cooperation

  • Allocate sufficient funding to biodiversity: minimum 1% of ODA

  • Make biodiversity a compulsory component of the programming dialogue (Strategic Environmental Assessment - SEA)

  • Involve Civil Society Organisations in the programming and implementation phases

  • Set up a monitoring mechanism with relevant performance indicators

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Thank You Development Cooperation

Jean-Claude Jacques

Head IUCN Representation to the EU

[email protected]

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


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