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Atomic structure. Atomic Structure. ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing. NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”). PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”).

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the structure of the atom

ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing

NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”)

PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”)

The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1808 that proved this and called these particles ATOMS:

The structure of the atom

Dalton

the atom
The Atom

Electron

Nucleus

Shell or Orbit

the atom hydrogen
The Atom Hydrogen

Proton

Electron

Hydrogen has one proton, one electron and NO neutrons

the atom helium
The Atom Helium

Proton

Electron

Neutron

Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons

mass and atomic number

MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons

4

He

SYMBOL

2

PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)

Mass and atomic number
the atom helium8
The Atom Helium

Proton

Electron

Neutron

Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons

the atom lithium
The Atom Lithium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

the atom beryllium
The Atom Beryllium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Beryllium has four electrons, four protons and five neutrons.

the atom boron
The Atom Boron

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Boron has five electrons, five protons and six neutrons.

the atom carbon
The Atom Carbon

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Carbon has six electrons, six protons and six neutrons.

the atom nitrogen
The Atom Nitrogen

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Nitrogen has seven electrons, seven protons and seven neutrons.

the atom oxygen
The Atom Oxygen

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.

the atom fluorine
The Atom Fluorine

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Fluorine has nine electrons, nine protons and ten neutrons.

the atom neon
The Atom Neon

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Neon has ten electrons, ten protons and ten neutrons.

the atom sodium
The Atom Sodium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Sodium has eleven electrons, eleven protons and twelve neutrons.

slide18

How many protons, neutrons and electrons?

1

11

16

H

B

O

1

5

8

23

35

238

Na

Cl

U

11

17

92

periodic table

The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups according to their properties.

Vertical columns are called GROUPS

Mendeleev

Periodic table

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS

the periodic table

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shell

E.g. all group 1 metals have __ electron in their outer shell

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shells

The Periodic Table

Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell (this correspond to their group number)

the periodic table21

E.g. Lithium has 3 electron in the configuration 2,1

Sodium has 11 electrons in the configuration 2,8,1

Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__

The Periodic Table

Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added:

the periodic table22

These elements are metals

This line divides metals from non-metals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table

Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals:

the periodic table23

E.g. consider the group 1 metals. They all:

  • Are soft
  • Can be easily cut with a knife
  • React with water
The Periodic Table

Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY.

group 1 the alkali metals25

Potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen

2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g)

Group 1 – The alkali metals

Some facts…

1) These metals all have ___ electron in their outer shell

2) Reactivity increases as you go _______ the group. This is because the electrons are further away from the _______ every time a _____ is added, so they are given up more easily.

3) They all react with water to form an alkali (hence their name) and __________, e.g:

Words – down, one, shell, hydrogen, nucleus

group 0 the noble gases27
Group 0 – The Noble gases

Some facts…

1) All of the noble gases have a full outer shell, so they are very _____________

2) They all have low melting and boiling points

3) They exist as single atoms rather then diatomic molecules

  • Helium is lighter then air and is used in balloons and airships (as well as for talking in a silly voice)
  • Argon is used in light bulbs (because it is so unreactive) and argon , krypton and neon are used in fancy lights
group 7 the halogens29

Decreasing

reactivity

Cl

Cl

Group 7 – The Halogens

Some facts…

1) Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the group

(This is because the electrons are further away from the nucleus and so any extra electrons aren’t attracted as much).

2) They exist as diatomic molecules (so that they both have a full outer shell):

3) Because of this fluorine and chlorine are liquid at room temperature and bromine is a gas

the halogens some reactions

H

H

Cl

Cl

Halogen + metal ionic salt

Na

+

-

Cl

Na

Cl

Halogen + non-metal covalent molecule

The halogens – some reactions

1) Halogen + metal:

+

2) Halogen + non-metal:

+

how shells fill
How shells fill
  • The first electron shell can only hold a maximum of two electrons.
  • The second electron shell can hold a maximum of eight electrons.
  • The third electron shell can also hold a maximum of eight electrons.
  • The fourth electron shell can also hold eight electrons.
electron structure

39

K

19

Nucleus

Electron structure

Consider an atom of Potassium:

Potassium has 19 electrons. These are arranged in shells…

The inner shell has __ electrons

The next shell has __ electrons

The next shell has __ electrons

The next shell has the remaining __ electron

Electron structure

= 2,8,8,1

the first twenty elements
The First Twenty Elements
  • Hydrogen 1,0,0,0
  • Helium 2,0,0,0
  • Lithium 2,1,0,0
  • Beryllium 2,2,0,0
  • Boron 2,3,0,0
  • Carbon 2,4,0,0
  • Nitrogen 2,5,0,0
first 20 elements continued
First 20 Elements continued
  • Oxygen 2,6,0,0
  • Fluorine 2,7,0,0
  • Neon 2,8,0,0
  • Sodium 2,8,1,0
  • Magnesium 2,8,2,0
  • Aluminium 2,8,3,0
  • Silicon 2,8,4,0
first 20 elements continued45
First 20 Elements continued
  • Phosphorus 2,8,5,0
  • Sulphur 2,8,6,0
  • Chlorine 2,8,7,0
  • Argon 2,8,8,0
  • Potassium 2,8,8,1
  • Calcium 2,8,8,2
the alkali metals
The Alkali metals
  • Lithium, Sodium and Potassium have one electron in their outer shell and this is why they are found in group one of the periodic table.
the nobel gases
The Nobel gases
  • The Nobel gases have full outer shells and they are found in group 0 of the periodic table. Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.
the halogens
The Halogens
  • Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are the Halogens and they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. This is why they are found in group 7 of the periodic table.
displacement
Displacement
  • Fluorine can displace Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.

F Cl Br I

displacement50
Displacement
  • Chlorine can displace Bromine and Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine

Cl Br I F

displacement51
Displacement
  • Bromine can displace Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine or Chlorine

Br I F Cl

displacement52
Displacement
  • Iodine cannot displace Iodine Fluorine, Chlorine or Bromine

I F Cl Br

fluorine reacts with sodium chloride which equation is correctly shows this reaction
Fluorine reacts with sodium chloride. Which equation is correctly shows this reaction?
  • F2 + 2Na  2NaF
  • F + Na  NaF
  • 2F + 2Na  2NaF
which will displace
Which will displace?
  • 2NaF + Cl2 Yes or No
  • 2NaBr + Cl2  Yes or No
  • 2KI + I2  Yes or No
  • 2LiCl + I2  Yes or No
  • 2NaBr + I2  Yes or No
  • 2NaBr + F2 Yes or No
  • Cl2 + 2NaBr  Yes or No
catalyst
Catalyst
  • A catalyst speeds up or slows down a reaction but does not get used up by the reaction.
temperature
Temperature
  • If we increase the temperature of a reaction by 100C the rate will double this means the reaction will be complete in half the time.
concentration
Concentration
  • If we increase the concentration of a reactant the number of particles increase that in turn increases the chance of a collision and initiates a chemical reaction.
surface area
Surface area
  • The larger the particle size the smaller the relative area the slower the reaction.
  • The smaller the particle size the greater the relative surface area and the faster the reaction.
group 1
Group 1
  • Lithium, sodium and potassium are all in group 1.
  • They all have one electron in the outer shell.
  • They are all metals.
  • They react with group 7 to form metal halides.
group 7
Group 7
  • Fluorine ,Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
  • They all have 7 electrons in their outer shell.
  • They are all coloured.
  • They form metal halides with group 1 metals.
group 0
Group 0
  • These are the noble gases.
  • They have complete electron shells.
  • The electron shells are full.
  • They are unreactive.
  • They are inert.
  • They do not react.
  • They include, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon
reactions
Reactions
  • Sodium and Chlorine react to form 
  • Sodium Chloride.
  • Iron and Chlorine react to form 
  • Iron Chloride.
  • 2Na + Cl2  2NaCl.
  • Fe + Cl2  FeCl2.
uses of the halogens
Uses of the Halogens
  • Fluorine is put into water supplies to kill harmful bacteria and to help keep teeth healthy.
  • Chlorine is used in swimming pools to bacteria in the water.
  • Bromine is used in pesticides. Silver bromide is used in photography.
  • Iodine is an antiseptic on cuts and grazes.
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