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Atomic structure. Atomic Structure. ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing. NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”). PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”).

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The structure of the atom l.jpg

ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing

NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”)

PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”)

The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1808 that proved this and called these particles ATOMS:

The structure of the atom

Dalton


The atom l.jpg
The Atom

Electron

Nucleus

Shell or Orbit


The atom hydrogen l.jpg
The Atom Hydrogen

Proton

Electron

Hydrogen has one proton, one electron and NO neutrons


The atom helium l.jpg
The Atom Helium

Proton

Electron

Neutron

Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons


Mass and atomic number l.jpg

MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons

4

He

SYMBOL

2

PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)

Mass and atomic number


The atom helium8 l.jpg
The Atom Helium

Proton

Electron

Neutron

Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons


The atom lithium l.jpg
The Atom Lithium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons


The atom beryllium l.jpg
The Atom Beryllium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Beryllium has four electrons, four protons and five neutrons.


The atom boron l.jpg
The Atom Boron

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Boron has five electrons, five protons and six neutrons.


The atom carbon l.jpg
The Atom Carbon

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Carbon has six electrons, six protons and six neutrons.


The atom nitrogen l.jpg
The Atom Nitrogen

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Nitrogen has seven electrons, seven protons and seven neutrons.


The atom oxygen l.jpg
The Atom Oxygen

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.


The atom fluorine l.jpg
The Atom Fluorine

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Fluorine has nine electrons, nine protons and ten neutrons.


The atom neon l.jpg
The Atom Neon

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Neon has ten electrons, ten protons and ten neutrons.


The atom sodium l.jpg
The Atom Sodium

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

Sodium has eleven electrons, eleven protons and twelve neutrons.


Slide18 l.jpg

How many protons, neutrons and electrons?

1

11

16

H

B

O

1

5

8

23

35

238

Na

Cl

U

11

17

92


Periodic table l.jpg

The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups according to their properties.

Vertical columns are called GROUPS

Mendeleev

Periodic table

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS


The periodic table l.jpg

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shell according to their properties.

E.g. all group 1 metals have __ electron in their outer shell

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shells

The Periodic Table

Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell (this correspond to their group number)


The periodic table21 l.jpg

E.g. Lithium has 3 electron in the configuration 2,1 according to their properties.

Sodium has 11 electrons in the configuration 2,8,1

Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__

The Periodic Table

Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added:


The periodic table22 l.jpg

These elements are metals according to their properties.

This line divides metals from non-metals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table

Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals:


The periodic table23 l.jpg

The Periodic Table

Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY.


Group 1 the alkali metals l.jpg
Group 1 – The alkali metals according to their properties.


Group 1 the alkali metals25 l.jpg

Potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen

2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g)

Group 1 – The alkali metals

Some facts…

1) These metals all have ___ electron in their outer shell

2) Reactivity increases as you go _______ the group. This is because the electrons are further away from the _______ every time a _____ is added, so they are given up more easily.

3) They all react with water to form an alkali (hence their name) and __________, e.g:

Words – down, one, shell, hydrogen, nucleus



Group 0 the noble gases27 l.jpg
Group 0 – The Noble gases hydrogen

Some facts…

1) All of the noble gases have a full outer shell, so they are very _____________

2) They all have low melting and boiling points

3) They exist as single atoms rather then diatomic molecules

  • Helium is lighter then air and is used in balloons and airships (as well as for talking in a silly voice)

  • Argon is used in light bulbs (because it is so unreactive) and argon , krypton and neon are used in fancy lights



Group 7 the halogens29 l.jpg

Decreasing hydrogen

reactivity

Cl

Cl

Group 7 – The Halogens

Some facts…

1) Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the group

(This is because the electrons are further away from the nucleus and so any extra electrons aren’t attracted as much).

2) They exist as diatomic molecules (so that they both have a full outer shell):

3) Because of this fluorine and chlorine are liquid at room temperature and bromine is a gas


The halogens some reactions l.jpg

H hydrogen

H

Cl

Cl

Halogen + metal ionic salt

Na

+

-

Cl

Na

Cl

Halogen + non-metal covalent molecule

The halogens – some reactions

1) Halogen + metal:

+

2) Halogen + non-metal:

+


How shells fill l.jpg
How shells fill hydrogen

  • The first electron shell can only hold a maximum of two electrons.

  • The second electron shell can hold a maximum of eight electrons.

  • The third electron shell can also hold a maximum of eight electrons.

  • The fourth electron shell can also hold eight electrons.


Electron structure l.jpg

39 hydrogen

K

19

Nucleus

Electron structure

Consider an atom of Potassium:

Potassium has 19 electrons. These are arranged in shells…

The inner shell has __ electrons

The next shell has __ electrons

The next shell has __ electrons

The next shell has the remaining __ electron

Electron structure

= 2,8,8,1












The first twenty elements l.jpg
The First Twenty Elements hydrogen

  • Hydrogen 1,0,0,0

  • Helium 2,0,0,0

  • Lithium 2,1,0,0

  • Beryllium 2,2,0,0

  • Boron 2,3,0,0

  • Carbon 2,4,0,0

  • Nitrogen 2,5,0,0


First 20 elements continued l.jpg
First 20 Elements continued hydrogen

  • Oxygen 2,6,0,0

  • Fluorine 2,7,0,0

  • Neon 2,8,0,0

  • Sodium 2,8,1,0

  • Magnesium 2,8,2,0

  • Aluminium 2,8,3,0

  • Silicon 2,8,4,0


First 20 elements continued45 l.jpg
First 20 Elements continued hydrogen

  • Phosphorus 2,8,5,0

  • Sulphur 2,8,6,0

  • Chlorine 2,8,7,0

  • Argon 2,8,8,0

  • Potassium 2,8,8,1

  • Calcium 2,8,8,2


The alkali metals l.jpg
The Alkali metals hydrogen

  • Lithium, Sodium and Potassium have one electron in their outer shell and this is why they are found in group one of the periodic table.


The nobel gases l.jpg
The Nobel gases hydrogen

  • The Nobel gases have full outer shells and they are found in group 0 of the periodic table. Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.


The halogens l.jpg
The Halogens hydrogen

  • Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are the Halogens and they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. This is why they are found in group 7 of the periodic table.


Displacement l.jpg
Displacement hydrogen

  • Fluorine can displace Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.

F Cl Br I


Displacement50 l.jpg
Displacement hydrogen

  • Chlorine can displace Bromine and Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine

Cl Br I F


Displacement51 l.jpg
Displacement hydrogen

  • Bromine can displace Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine or Chlorine

Br I F Cl


Displacement52 l.jpg
Displacement hydrogen

  • Iodine cannot displace Iodine Fluorine, Chlorine or Bromine

I F Cl Br


Fluorine reacts with sodium chloride which equation is correctly shows this reaction l.jpg
Fluorine reacts with sodium chloride. Which equation is correctly shows this reaction?

  • F2 + 2Na  2NaF

  • F + Na  NaF

  • 2F + 2Na  2NaF


Which will displace l.jpg
Which will displace? correctly shows this reaction?

  • 2NaF + Cl2 Yes or No

  • 2NaBr + Cl2  Yes or No

  • 2KI + I2  Yes or No

  • 2LiCl + I2  Yes or No

  • 2NaBr + I2  Yes or No

  • 2NaBr + F2 Yes or No

  • Cl2 + 2NaBr  Yes or No


Four factors affecting reaction rate l.jpg
Four factors affecting Reaction Rate correctly shows this reaction?


Catalyst l.jpg
Catalyst correctly shows this reaction?

  • A catalyst speeds up or slows down a reaction but does not get used up by the reaction.


Temperature l.jpg
Temperature correctly shows this reaction?

  • If we increase the temperature of a reaction by 100C the rate will double this means the reaction will be complete in half the time.


Concentration l.jpg
Concentration correctly shows this reaction?

  • If we increase the concentration of a reactant the number of particles increase that in turn increases the chance of a collision and initiates a chemical reaction.


Surface area l.jpg
Surface area correctly shows this reaction?

  • The larger the particle size the smaller the relative area the slower the reaction.

  • The smaller the particle size the greater the relative surface area and the faster the reaction.


Group 1 l.jpg
Group 1 correctly shows this reaction?

  • Lithium, sodium and potassium are all in group 1.

  • They all have one electron in the outer shell.

  • They are all metals.

  • They react with group 7 to form metal halides.


Group 7 l.jpg
Group 7 correctly shows this reaction?

  • Fluorine ,Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.

  • They all have 7 electrons in their outer shell.

  • They are all coloured.

  • They form metal halides with group 1 metals.


Group 0 l.jpg
Group 0 correctly shows this reaction?

  • These are the noble gases.

  • They have complete electron shells.

  • The electron shells are full.

  • They are unreactive.

  • They are inert.

  • They do not react.

  • They include, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon


Halogens l.jpg
Halogens correctly shows this reaction?


Reactions l.jpg
Reactions correctly shows this reaction?

  • Sodium and Chlorine react to form 

  • Sodium Chloride.

  • Iron and Chlorine react to form 

  • Iron Chloride.

  • 2Na + Cl2  2NaCl.

  • Fe + Cl2  FeCl2.


Uses of the halogens l.jpg
Uses of the Halogens correctly shows this reaction?

  • Fluorine is put into water supplies to kill harmful bacteria and to help keep teeth healthy.

  • Chlorine is used in swimming pools to bacteria in the water.

  • Bromine is used in pesticides. Silver bromide is used in photography.

  • Iodine is an antiseptic on cuts and grazes.


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