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By Grid Lab, Dept of I.T, Madras Institute of Technology Anna University Chennai. A Framework for Trust Management System in Computational Grids. What we cover…. Motivation

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a framework for trust management system in computational grids

By

Grid Lab, Dept of I.T,

Madras Institute of Technology

Anna University

Chennai

A Framework for Trust Management System in Computational Grids
what we cover
What we cover….
  • Motivation
  • Trust Management System – Lifecycle & Metrics
  • Trust Based Scheduler
  • Trusted Grid Architecture
  • Experimental Results ..
  • Conclusion
slide3

Objectives

  • To define a trust management system with its life cycle to evaluate trustworthiness of Grid Resource Providers.
  • To develop trust resource broker that discovers suitable and trusted grid resource for reliable, accurate and in time successful job execution
  • To propose a standard architecture that enables Trust Based Scheduling in Grid

Motivation

  • Grid is a dynamic collections of huge number of resources spanning multiple administrative domains, distributed across the globe to solve a computationally intensive problem.
  • It involves Resources and Information sharing with unknown parties that pose a great challenge in ensuring trustworthiness of resource providers
  • Current grid security mechanism lacks the ability to determine how “trustworthy” a resource provider is.
we define trust
We define Trust…

The degree of belief in the resource provider’s competence to complete user’s task dependably, securely and reliably in a specific context at a given time

Agent / Resource Broker

users

Resources

slide5

Describes relying party’s trust in a service provider. The trustor trusts the trustee to provide a service that does not involve access to the trustor’s resource

  • A trustor trusts a trustee to use resources that he owns or controls.
  • It measures whether a resource provided by the resource provider is trustworthy.
  • It is the belief that information provided by the Information provider is reliable and accurate.
  • It is a measure of belief that a resource broker has discovered a trustworthy resource
  • Measures whether a resource provider is willing to offer his services to the user.
  • The previous behaviour / payment record may be considered for this trust

Types of trust

slide6

Modify or update the value of trust periodically for each resource provider

  • Identify suitable parameters with which the respective trust can be defined

Trust

Integration

Trust Metric

Identification

  • Integrate the trust mechanism in the resource broker / Scheduler to find out the most trustworthy resource provider for successful job execution/task completion
  • Apply suitable methodology to determine the value of those

metrics

TMS

Trust Value

Updation

Trust Metric

Evaluation

Trust Value

Calculation

  • Determine the overall trust value using the values for various trust metrics obtained

Trust Management Life Cycle

our focus is on equipment provision trust

In Grid environment, where

resources from diverse organizations

are shared, the real challenge is

determining the trustworthiness of

the resource providers.

Equipment

Provision

Trust

Emphasis is on EQUIPMENT

PROVISION TRUST for Computationally intensive problems to be solved.

Our Focus is on Equipment Provision trust
trust management system for equipment provision trust
Trust Management System for Equipment Provision Trust

Estimates Trustworthiness of all Grid Resource Providers

Periodically updates the trust value

The trust calculation is based on

Resource performance Metrics

User feedback Metrics

Resource Registration Metrics

The Trust Management System integrated with a Grid Metascheduler acts as Grid Resource Broker

slide9

Resource Registration Metrics

Resource Performance Metrics

Equipment

Provision

Trust

User Feedback Metrics

Dependency Metrics

These metrics reflect the throughput of the resources and their QoS

Government / Private, Registration Number

Affordability, Bandwidth, Success, Failure

These metrics reflect the infrastructure of the organization. It is used to identify initial trust value of the resource provider

These metrics reflect reputation of the resource in the user community

Reputation through feedback

slide11

1

How to obtain those parameters ?

Issues

2

How to calculate overall trust ?

Issues

3

How to integrate trust with metascheduler ?

slide12

2100

2100

2100

2100

2100

2100

2100

2100

Tools to determine parameters

- Success

- Failure (Obviously)

Gridway

Metascheduler

- Affordability

- Bandwidth

Local Scheduler & NWS

Network Monitoring Tools (NMT)

slide14

Integration with Gridway

To propose a trust based scheduling mechanism

slide15

Position of Gridway !!

Gridway

  • A metaschedulerthat uses Globus as core middleware.

Performs

  • Resource Discovery
  • Job scheduling
  • Job submission
  • Job Execution Monitoring

With…

  • Transparent Resource access
  • Adapting to dynamism of grid environment

Gridway Metascheduler

Globus core Middleware

Users

PBS cluster

SGE cluster

Condor cluster

components of gridway
Components of Gridway..

Information

Manager

Transfer

Manager

MAD

Execution

Manager

MAD

MAD

User

It receives resource request for executing the job

Gridway Core

Request

Manager

Responsible for job scheduling and initiates resource discovery

Dispatch

Manager

Responsible for resource discovery and monitoring

Scheduler

Responsible for job execution

MDS2

Grid Information

services

MDS4

Middleware Access Drivers

Pre-WS

GRAM

WS-

GRAM

gFTP

RFT

Responsible for data transfer between the resources and staging of files

Grid Execution

services

Grid File Transfer

Services

slide17

Conventional Gridway Flow

Trust Enabled Gridway Flow

<job template>

<job template>

Job Submit

Job Submit

Invokes Scheduling Operation

Invokes Scheduling Operation

Gathers Available

Resource

Gathers Available

Resource

Selects Most Trusted

Resource

Performs Matchmaking

Performs Matchmaking

Trust

DB

Matches

Against JobReq

Invokes TMS

TMS

Matches

Against JobReq

Selects and submit

Selects and submit

R2

R1

R3

R2

R1

R3

slide18

Gridway Configuration File

Trust Enabled Gridway Configuration File

gwd.conf

gwd.conf

----

----

GWD_PORT = 6725

MAX_NUMBER_OF_CLIENTS = 20

NUMBER_OF_ARRAYS = 200

NUMBER_OF_JOBS = 5000

NUMBER_OF_HOSTS = 100

NUMBER_OF_USERS = 30

JOBS_PER_SCHED = 15

JOBS_PER_HOST = 10

JOBS_PER_USER = 30

----

----

----

----

GWD_PORT = 6725

MAX_NUMBER_OF_CLIENTS = 20

NUMBER_OF_ARRAYS = 200

NUMBER_OF_JOBS = 5000

NUMBER_OF_HOSTS = 100

NUMBER_OF_USERS = 30

# Trust_value=1 for the trust based resource selection

# Trust_value=0 for the normal Gridway resource selection

TRUST_VALUE = 1

JOBS_PER_SCHED = 15

JOBS_PER_HOST = 10

JOBS_PER_USER = 30

----

--- -

slide19

Reaching the destination …

Where do we evolve the architecture ?

Integrating Trust Management System with

gridway metascheduler will act as a Resource

Broker that select grid resource based on its

trust value

With this resource broker, we hereby proposing

a four layered grid architecture that facilitates

grid resource discovery and selection of most

trusted grid resource for job execution

slide20

Layered Architecture of Trust Resource Broker for Equipment Provision Trust

Receives feedback from the user and resource registration information from the resource provider

User

Feedback

Grid

Resource

Registration

Application

Portlets

Application

Portlets

Application Layer

Application

Portlets

Monitors Trust metrics, evaluates trust and makes decision based on the trust and facilitates job execution

Trust Broker

Data

base

Trust

Management

System

Trust Layer

Gridway

Metascheduler

Constitutes grid middleware, provides grid resource information to trust layer, and take care grid resource authentication

NMT

MDS

GRAM

GFTP/RFTP

Grid Middleware

Refers to the underlying grid resources where actual job execution takes place. They may use local job manager for monitoring job execution

GSI

Resources

Grid Fabrics

slide21

Experimental Setup

Trust Based

Metascheduler

g09.grid

MITCluster

60 Nodes

Connected with

Garuda Resources

VOCluster

15 Nodes

RockCluster

10 Nodes

slide22

Results

Most trustworthy resource will get more jobs for scheduling , i.e., a good shop

will have huge crowd

slide23

Results

The trust value of a resource that shows gradual decrease in the affordability

conclusion
Conclusion
  • The trust management system integrated with gridway metascheduler enables discovery of a suitable resource that has the highest trust value
  • Executing job in a trusted resource facilitates satisfactory usage of grid resources with increased reliability and accuracy
references
References…
  • [Abr95] M.D. Abrams, M.V. Joyce. Trusted Computing Update. Computers and Security, 14(1): 57-68. 1995.
  • [Boe03] S. Boeyen et al. Liberty Trust Models Guidelines. In J. Linn (editor), Liberty Alliance Project. Liberty Alliance, draft version 1.0, 2003.
  • [Buy04] S. Venugopal, R. Buyya and L. Winton, “A Grid Service Broker for Scheduling Distributed Data-Oriented Applications on Global Grids”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Middleware for Grid Computing (Co-located with Middleware 2004, Toronto, Canada, October 18, 2004), ACM Press, 2004, USA
  • [Cas98] C. Castelfranchi, R. Falcone. Principles of Trust for MAS: Cognitive Anatomy, Social Importance, and Quantification. In Y. Demazeau (editor), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems. IEEE C.S., Los Alamitos, 1998.
  • [Kin98] A. Kini, J. Choobineh. Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definition and Theoretical Consideration. Proceedings of 31st International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, 1998.
  • [Gra00] T. Grandison, M. Sloman. A Survey of Trust in Internet Applications. IEEE Communications Survey and Tutorials, 3, 2000.
  • [Dim01] T. Dimitrakos. System Models, e-Risk and e-Trust. Towards Bridging the Gap? in Towards the ESociety: E-Business, E-Commerce, and E-Government, eds. B. Schmid, K. Stanoevska-Slabeva, V. Tschammer. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
references30
References…
  • [Jos05] A. Josang, R. Ismail, C. Boyd. A Survey of Trust and Reputation Systems for Online Service Provision. Decision Support Systems, 2005.
  • [Chi04] Ching L., Vijay V. and Yan W. Vineet P., “Enhancing Grid Security with Trust Management”, Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC’04).
  • [Xia04] G. Xiaolin, X.Bing, L.Yinan, Q.Depei, “A Grid Security Infrastructure Based on Behaviors and
  • Trusts” GCC 2004 Workshops, LNCS 3252 pp. 482–489, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2004.
  • Wang, Y., Vassileva, J., “Bayesian Network-Based Trust Model”, Web Intelligence, Halifax Canada,
  • 2003, pp 372-378.
  • [Nat05] G. Nathan, C. Kuo-Ming, “Experience-Based Trust: Enabling Effective Resource Selection in a Grid Environment”, iTrust 2005, LNCS 3477, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005, pp. 240–255.
  • [Muh06] Muhammad Hanif Durad, Yuanda Cao,” A Vision for the Trust Managed Grid”, Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid Workshops (CCGRIDW\'06)
slide31

References

  • [Dim04] T. Dimitrakos, D. Golby P. Kearney. Towards a Trust and Contract Management Framework for Dynamic Virtual Organisations. In eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: eChallenges 2004. Vienna, Austria, 2004.
  • [Gra00] T. Grandison, M. Sloman. A Survey of Trust in Internet Applications. IEEE Communications Survey and Tutorials, 3, 2000.
  • [Bro03a] P.J. Broadfoot, G. Lowe. Architectures for Secure Delegation within Grids. Oxford University Computing Laboratory Technical Report, PRG-RR-03-19, 2003.
  • [Roo71] Rotter, J. B. 1971. Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust. American Psychologist, 26: 443-452.
  • [Lew85] Lewis, J. D. & Weigert, A. J. 1985b. Social atomism, holism, and trust. The Sociological Quarterly, 2l6(4):455-471.
  • [Sur02] M. Surridge. A Rough Guide to Grid Security. Technical Report, IT Innovation Centre, V1.1a, 2002.
  • [Gas90] M. Gasser, E. McDermott. An Architecture for Practical Delegation in a Distributed System. IEEE
  • Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, 1990.
slide32

References

  • [Fos98] I. Foster, C. Kesselman, G. Tsudki, S. Tuecke. A Security Architecture for Computational Grids. In Proceedings of 5th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, 1998.
  • [Joh03] W.E. Johnston, J.M. Brooke, R. Butler, D. Foster and M. Mazzucato. Production Deployment:
  • Experiences and Recommendations. In [Fos03], 2003.
  • [Nag03] N. Nagaratnam, P. Janson, J. Dayka, A. Nadalin, F. Siebenlist, V. Welch, S. Tuecke, I. Foster. Security Architecture for Open Grid Services. Available at http://forge.gridforum.org/projects/ogsa-sec-wg.
  • [Ton06] N. Tonellotto, R. Yahyapour, Ph. Wieder, CoreGRID Technical Report ,Number TR-0015 January 11, 2006
  • [Ji06] Ji Ma and Mehmet A. Orgun, Trust Management and Trust Theory Revision, IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics—Part A: Systems And Humans, Vol. 36, No. 3, May 2006.
  • [Ind04] Indrajit Ray and Sudip Chakraborty, “A vector Model of Trust for Developing Trustworthy Systems”, Proceedings of 9th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS\'04), 2004.
slide33

References

  • [Dan01] Dan J. Kim, Y. Il Song, S. B. Braynov and H. R. Rao, “A B-to-C Trust Model for On-line Exchange”, Americas Conference on Information Systems(AMCIS), Boston, Massachusetts, August 3-5, .2001.
  • [Pat05] V.Patel, R.K.Shyamasundar, “Trust management for e-transactions”, sadana, vol. 30, April/June 2005, pp 141-158.
  • [Ros57] Rosenberg, M. Occupations and values. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
  • http://www.mobilegrids.org/
  • http://www.ist-daidalos.org/
  • http://www.eu-egee.org/
  • http://www.hpc4u.org/
  • http://www.nextgrid.org/
  • http://www.gridprovenance.org/
  • http://www.simdat.org
  • http://www.eu-trustcom.com
  • http://www.unigrids.org
slide34

Thank you

Questions

ganglia
Ganglia
  • Ganglia is a scalable distributed monitoring tool used for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and Grids.
  • Two unique daemons

- gmetad (Ganglia Meta daemon)

- gmond (Ganglia Monitoring daemon)

  • gmond

- monitor/announce/listen to the changes in

host state

  • gmetad

- Runs in master node and gathers information

from all nodes that runs gmond

Node D

(Master Node)

gmetad

gmond

gmond

gmond

Node C

Node A

Node B

network weather service
Network Weather Service
  • a generalized distributed monitoring system
  • periodically monitors and dynamically forecasts the performance of various network and computational resources
  • The nameserver running in the master node gathers network characteristics from all sensor nodes and stores in memory

Node D

(Master Node)

nws-nameserver

memory

nws-sensor

nws-sensor

nws-sensor

Node A

Node C

Node B

whetstone dhrystone benchmarks
Whetstone/Dhrystone Benchmarks
  • Gives MIPS of an executable
  • Instruction count – Using Linux command

MIPS = Instruction count / Execution time*106

Further Literature

slide39

Literature Survey

Issues

How to evaluate each trust metric?

Implementation Ahead …..

implementation parameter retrieval actual execution time success failure
Implementation – Parameter RetrievalActual Execution time, Success & Failure

Trust Layer

Gridway Metascheduler

Gridway Metascheduler

DRMAAs

Obtains

Actual Execution Time

Actual Execution Time

JAVA

Module

Success

Success

Failure

Failure

Reads Status

Status of

Execution

Grid Middleware Layer

Job Submission

Fabric Layer

Resource A

implementation parameter retrieval availability
Implementation – Parameter RetrievalAvailability

Gridway

Trust Layer

Down time

JAVA

Module

JAVA

Module

queries

Availability

Up time

Ganglia gmetad

POLLS

Grid Middleware Layer

Ganglia gmond

Fabric Layer

Master Node of

Resource A

implementation parameter retrieval bandwidth latency
Implementation – Parameter RetrievalBandwidth, Latency

Trust Layer

Gridway

JAVA

Module

Bandwidth

nws-nameserver

Latency

Memory

Grid Middleware Layer

nws-sensor

nws-sensor

nws-sensor

Fabric Layer

Master Node of A

Master Node of B

Master Node of C

portal interface user feedback resource registration

JAVA

Module

User

Feedback

Resource

Registration

Database

Portal InterfaceUser Feedback, Resource Registration

Resource

Provider

Application Layer

user

Trust Layer

slide44

The Ultimate Flow …

6

NWS

Database

Whetstone/

Dhrystone

Ganglia

6

6

12

4

6

5

Trust

Management

Portal

5

2

1

Gridway

Metascheduler

9

MDS

8

10

11

users

3

Trust Resource Broker

Resource Domain

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