what is memory

what is memory PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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what is memory

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3: Video Remembering and Forgetting… w/ Phil Zimbardo ? from the “Discovering Psychology” series

4: Three Stages of Memory Stage 1 - Sensory Memory is a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) is working memory Limited capacity (7 items) Duration is about 30 seconds Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) is large capacity and long duration

5: Overview of Memory Model

6: Integrated Model Concepts Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage

7: Integrated Model of Memory

8: Overview of LTM

9: Varieties of LTM Two types of LTM Semantic memory refers to factual information Episodic memory refers to autobiographical information as to where and when an event happened

10: Organization of LTM Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory 2 types: Recognition Recall Ziegarnik Effect

11: Memory Measures Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time. Quicker to learn material 2nd time

12: Flashbulb Memories Where were you when you first heard: That The WTC had been crashed into? That the federal building had been bombed in Oklahoma City? That Princess Diana had been killed in a car wreck?

13: Anatomy of Memory

14: Anatomy of Memory

15: Forgetting Forgetting is the inability to recall previously learned information

16: Serial Position Effect

17: Study Strategies Distributed practice refers to spacing learning periods in contrast to massed practice in which learning is “crammed” into a single session Distributed practice leads to better retention

18: Theories of Forgetting Proactive interference: old information interferes with recall of new information Retroactive interference: new information interferes with recall of old information Decay theory: memory trace fades with time Motivated forgetting: involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) Retrieval failure: the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent

19: Organization of LTM Tip-of the tongue phenomenon: person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”)

20: Amnesia Amnesia is forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma Retrograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information prior to a trauma Anterograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information after a trauma

21: Issues in Memory Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: Source amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event) Sleeper effect: a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten Misinformation effect: we incorporate outside information into our own memories

22: Memory Strategies Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information Method of Loci: ideas are associated with a place or part of a building Peg-Word system: peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) Word Associations: verbal associations are created for items to be learned

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