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Weed Management Strategies. Lily Lake Organic Farm Maple Park, IL Dave Campbell. Transition Steps. Emphasis on growing alfalfa / grass hay Strong horse hay market Erosion concerns Major weed issues First 3 – 5 years of transition. Benefits of Growing Legumes.

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weed management strategies

Weed Management Strategies

Lily Lake Organic Farm

Maple Park, IL

Dave Campbell

transition steps
Transition Steps
  • Emphasis on growing alfalfa / grass hay
  • Strong horse hay market
  • Erosion concerns
  • Major weed issues
    • First 3 – 5 years of transition
benefits of growing legumes
Benefits of Growing Legumes
  • Root systems increase infiltration of air and water into the soil
  • Tap roots break through soil hardpan allowing access to nutrients
benefits of growing grass
Benefits of Growing Grass
  • Rapid spring growth competes well with weeds
  • Best crop to plant for erosion control
  • Fibrous roots reduce frost heaving of alfalfa that is seeded with grass
concerns about raising hay
Concerns About Raising Hay
  • Best scenario – farm should contain livestock
  • Soil test at least every 3 years if no livestock manure is applied to farm
  • First choice – plant hay to fields with highest potassium levels
rotation at llof
Rotation at LLOF
  • Year 1 Oats or Winter Wheat / Red Clover
  • Year 2 Corn
  • Year 3 Soybeans
year 1 oats or winter wheat red clover
Year 1 Oats or Winter Wheat / Red Clover
  • Fall seeded wheat
  • Frost seed medium red clover in March

OR

  • Spring seeded oats
  • Seed red clover with oats
year 1 oats or winter wheat red clover8
Year 1 Oats or Winter Wheat / Red Clover
  • Mow bad weed patches
  • Hoe out or cut thistles
  • Run straw through straw chopper
  • Clip weeds in early September
  • Chisel plow in late fall
general tips on weed control in oats and wheat
General Tips on Weed Control in Oats and Wheat
  • Sow as early as possible, especially oats
  • Increase seeding rates a little higher then conventional rates
    • Especially for high test weight oats
  • May need to use a rotary hoe or tine weeder if early weed growth is heavy
  • Use clean seed only
year 2 corn
Year 2 - Corn
  • First pass – Field cultivator
    • Till in the moderate to shallow range
  • Second pass – Field cultivator
    • Till in the shallow range
  • Plant immediately after last tillage pass
  • Don’t plant until soil temperatures have warmed up
slide11

Year 3 - Soybeans

  • Disk corn stalks in late April
    • Early germinating weeds are killed off by disking
  • Moldboard plow after next weed flush
    • Plowing buries many weed seeds
year 3 soybeans
Year 3 - Soybeans
  • Field is disked or field cultivated with drag harrow attached
  • Ground is field cultivated immediately before planting beans to eradicate weeds
  • Don’t plant until soil temperatures have warmed up
year 3 soybeans after harvest
Year 3 – Soybeans – After Harvest
  • Disk down ridges to level field
  • Lightly field cultivate with narrow shank cultivator
  • Sow winter wheat
  • Drag field to cover exposed wheat
  • Don’t do any fall tillage if sowing oats the following spring
rotary hoeing corn or soybeans
Rotary Hoeing Corn or Soybeans
  • First hoeing to take place 3-5 days after last tillage pass
  • Adjust tractor speed and hoeing depth when entering a new field
  • Second hoeing to take place 3-5 days after first hoeing
row crop cultivation corn or soybeans
Row Crop Cultivation:Corn or Soybeans
  • Usually cultivate 3 times
  • Cultivate with Buffalo cultivator
  • Disk hillers are used
  • Cultivision mirror is used
general tips on weed control in corn soybeans
General Tips on Weed Control in Corn & Soybeans
  • Wait until soil warms up and dries out before tilling and planting
  • Don’t plant right before a heavy rain is forecasted
  • Destroy crop when weeds have overtaken it
  • Timing is everything!
general tips on weed control in corn soybeans17
General Tips on Weed Control in Corn & Soybeans
  • Use clean seed only
  • Plant a little heavier than intended to allow for loss of plants if needing to rotary hoe aggressively
  • Don’t take on a full-time job
suppressing canada thistle
Suppressing Canada Thistle
  • Field cultivate every 2-3 weeks in the spring time before crop is planted
  • Mow thistles around entire farm before seed head opens
  • Talk with neighbors and/or local authorities if problem is off the farm
suppressing canada thistle19
Suppressing Canada Thistle

Smother and Starve Approach

  • Sow alfalfa or grass for 3 years or more
  • Sow buckwheat in a light to moderate infested field
  • Sow sorghum sudan grass in a moderate to heavy infested field
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