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Student Learning Outcomes & Instructional Objectives. SLOs: Use knowledge of global events and trends since 1500 to shed light on contemporary issues Objectives Explain with specific examples, ways in which geographical factors help shape human events

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Student learning outcomes instructional objectives
Student Learning Outcomes & Instructional Objectives

SLOs:

  • Use knowledge of global events and trends since 1500 to shed light on contemporary issues

    Objectives

  • Explain with specific examples, ways in which geographical factors help shape human events

  • Interpret historical knowledge to extend comprehension of world cultures

  • Describe interactions and influences between and among civilizations

  • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships in history, including variables such as the “great person”, technological change, outside influences and demographic change


  • the dominant pattern of biological evolution on this planet has been geographical divergence dictated by the separateness of the continents.

  • organisms have evolved differently because they had no contact with each other

  • Humans have reversed the ancient trend by the age of exploration spreading crops, animals and disease organisms.



  • Polynesian Voyages & Settlement the category of the exchange of organisms between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

  • A.D. 458 Chinese early exploration near Baja California

  • the Vikings about 1,000 CE

  • Yang Qings exploration 1421

  • Zing He and influence on 15th century world maps

  • the Vikings about 1,000 CE, but the tsunami of biological exchange did not begin until 1492.

  • In that year the Europeans initiated contacts across the Atlantic and Pacific which have never ceased.

  • Their motives were economic, nationalistic, and religious, not biological.


  • Biogeography of the globe when Columbus set sail; the category of the exchange of organisms between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

  • Everyone in Eurasia and Africa was a person who shared no common ancestor with indigenous peoples in the Western Hemisphere for at the very least 10,000 years.

  • The plants and animals of the tropical continents of Africa and South America differed sharply from each other and from those in any other parts of the world.

  • In addition social structures, religion and world views (social, economic and political ideologies) were very different in the Western Hemisphere


  • The Columbian exchange started when Christopher Columbus petitioned Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain for a grant, to explore westward. 

  • The  voyages of Christopher Columbus were significant maritime achievements.

  • Columbus set sail for the first  time from Palos on August 3 1492, leaving a Europe wracked by war

  • The population had been halved a century before by the Black Death


  • He landed on Friday October 12, 1492 petitioned Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain for a grant, to explore westward. 

  • Within a year had enslaved most of the people of Hispaniola, (Haiti and the Dominican Republic);

  • in 1493 500 Arawak people were shipped back to Spain as slaves only seven survived. 


  • Five shivering captives actually reached the streets of Barcelona.

  • Natives were grossly maltreated, often in the name of religion; "they were hanged in groups of 13 " in memory of our Redeemer and his apostles.“ De Las Casas

  • In succeeding voyages Columbus explored the West Indies, and reached the mainland coast of South America.  After Columbus came Cortes (Mexico) and Pizarro ( South America.


What the Spaniards Brought Barcelona.

  • New plants included wheat and other Eurasian grains; pear, peach, orange, lemon tress; chick peas, grape vines, melons, onions, radishes and many plants that became weeds.

  •  They brought horses, pigs, sheep, goats, burros, and cattle.

  •  Within a century, there were cattle everywhere. There were thousands upon thousands of horses available to anyone with a few coins or the skill to rope them. Legally, Indians were forbidden horses.


Americas Barcelona.

domesticatedanimalsdogsllamasguinea pigsfowl (a few species

Europedomesticatedanimalsdogshorsesdonkeyspigscattlegoatssheepbarnyard fowl


  • A century after the contact, there was perhaps one Indian for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier.

  • Disease was the single greatest cause of this population decline.

  • smallpox, malaria, yellow fever, measles, cholera, typhoid, and bubonic plague

  • Epidemics of these diseases swept over the Americas.

  • About fifty epidemics swept through the Valley of Mexico between 1519 and 1810.

  • Brazil experienced perhaps forty epidemics of smallpox before 1840.


  • Golden Ages are in the past; what followed was dreadful: for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier.

  • "It was the month of Tepeilhuitl when it began and it spread over the people as great destruction. Some it quite covered with pustules on all parts -- their faces, their heads, their breasts, etc. There was a great havoc. Very many died of it. They could not walk; they only lay in their resting places and beds. They could not move ; they could not stir; they could not change positions , nor lie in one side; nor face down , nor on their backs. And if they stirred, much did they cry out. Great was its ( smallpox) destruction. Covered , mantled with pustules, many people died of them. " (Sahagun - Florentine Codex)


  • Similarly Cakchiquel Mayan annals recorded : " for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier. Great was the stench of the dead.   After our fathers and grandfathers succumbed, half of the people fled to the fields.  The dogs and vultures devoured the bodies.  The mortality was terrible. Your grandfathers died, and with them died the son of the king, and his brothers and kinsmen.  So it was that we became orphans, oh my sons. So we became when we were young.  All of were thus. We were born to die!"

  • The people died,  agriculture was crippled,  famine followed pestilence; they could not defend themselves, they could not feed themselves. .


  • New Ideologies; for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier.

  • Christianity and the concept of monotheism

  • Patriarchy

  • Capitalism

  • Individualism over Collectivism


 What the Western Hemisphere gave to the world for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier.

  • The greatest impact of America on Europe, Asia and Africa was the spread of American food crops.

  • This list includes: Maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, manioc, caco, peppers, most beans, and squash.

  • All of these were unknown in the Eastern Hemisphere before 1492.

  • In 1986, the maize and potato harvest totaled 788 million metric tons. This was 78 percent of the 1,010 metric tons of wheat and rice harvested that same year.


Iroquois Community for every ten or perhaps twenty who had been alive in the Valley of Mexico a century earlier.

15th Century


  • The growth of population and industrialization in Northern Europe could not have happened as they did without the increased nourishment provided by the potato.

  • Millions of Southern Europeans and African had their lives transformed by maize. In the course of the eighteenth century, China more than doubled in population due in considerable part to new American food crops.


Slo objectives assessment
SLO/Objectives Assessment Europe could not have happened as they did without the increased nourishment provided by the potato.

  • How does historical knowledge of the Columbian Exchange shed light on contemporary issues?

    Objectives

  • What role did geographical factors play in the Columbian Exchange?

  • Interpret historical knowledge to extend comprehension of world cultures

  • List the possible positive and negative interactions and influences between and among civilizations as a result of the Columbian Exchange.

  • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships in history, including variables such as the “great person”, technological change, outside influences and demographic change related to the Columbian Exchange


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