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Scrum from an Organization Perspective. Damian P. Evans VP, Product Development, Qpass – Amdocs Digital Commerce Division 9 Aug 2007. Scrum provides no organizational guidance, but its impact on organizations can be far reaching. INTRODUCTION. SCRUM ADOPTION. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS.

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Scrum from an organization perspective

Scrum from an Organization Perspective

Damian P. Evans

VP, Product Development, Qpass – Amdocs Digital Commerce Division

9 Aug 2007



INTRODUCTION organizations can be far reaching.

SCRUM ADOPTION

ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS


About qpass
About Qpass organizations can be far reaching.

  • US leader in mobile commerce

  • Started in 1997

  • Independent division (for now) of Amdocs acquired in May 2006

  • Approximately 400 people worldwide (Amdocs = 17 000+)

  • Sell to Network Operators who need to efficiently manage their digital commerce

    • products (license + maint/support),

    • systems integration projects,

    • managed application services


Characteristics of qpass product development pd
Characteristics of Qpass Product Development (“PD”) organizations can be far reaching.

  • Great people

  • Humor, mostly snide/self-effacing

  • Mostly consensus-oriented

  • Not a yeller-screamer culture

  • Not very political

  • Somewhat risk averse

  • Some tendency to overanalyze

  • Process-belief (both good and bad)

  • Excellent relationship with Product Management


Current status of scrum at qpass
Current Status of Scrum at Qpass organizations can be far reaching.

Qpass Product Development only

  • 12 teams

  • 3 continents

  • 100 people

  • 5 products, with release collaboration req’d

    …all doing Scrum

    Other parts of Amdocs and Qpass very interested, experimenting


INTRODUCTION organizations can be far reaching.

SCRUM ADOPTION

ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS


Functional organization 2005

Program Managers organizations can be far reaching.

Engineers

Architects

Perf Eng

Testers

Functional Organization: 2005

VP, PD

PGM

Director, Arch

Director, Eng

Director, QA

Mgr, Perf & Platform

Arch sched

Test sched

Eng Mgrs

Test Mgrs

Dev sched

Test sched

Test, Tune

Schedule Alignment

Specs

Test

Design, Code


Pd management involvement pre scrum

Role of people PD mgmt organizations can be far reaching.

Role of bulk of PD staff

PD Management Involvement Pre-Scrum

Executive Management

Product Management

Vision, Strategy

$$ allocation (LOB level)

KPI

Objectives

Resource acquisition / creation

Business ownership / ROI

$$ allocation (Product / Project level)

Value identification and communication

Value delivery

Program / Project Management

Technology Management

Value creation

Visibility

Resource utilization

Impediment removal

Risk management

Software process definition

Technology standards

Vendor management

IP management


Our process evolution

Daily Builds organizations can be far reaching.

UML

Automated Unit Tests

Continuous Integration

SCM

RUP Attempt

Scrum!

Waterfall

PMI Flair-up

Component-oriented teams

Feature-oriented teams

Component-oriented teams

Architects as demigods

Architects as team members

Testing Org

Gone

Testing Org

Our Process Evolution


Rup phases and qpass 2005
RUP Phases and Qpass: 2005 organizations can be far reaching.

Inception

Elaboration

Construction

Transition


Problem identification july 2005
Problem Identification: July 2005 organizations can be far reaching.

  • Too much time spent in planning

  • No code written in early phases

  • Tester-developer schedule alignment (but not teamwork) tough

  • Risk deferral / weak definition of done

  • Incessant debate about the “right way” to do iterative development

     Find a coach


Scrum roll out approach
Scrum Roll-out Approach organizations can be far reaching.

  • Experimentation

  • Pilot

  • Roll-out


Experimentation
Experimentation organizations can be far reaching.

  • Found a coach (Danube)

  • Used SDET team as guinea pigs of process (and of coach )

  • Shared results


Pilot
Pilot organizations can be far reaching.

  • Retained coach

  • OpenMarket team (a new product) volunteered to pilot

    • Found all sorts of issues – management counter-incentives the biggest

  • PartnerCenter team (a feature on flagship product) observed OM, picked up baton

    • Found and corrected more issues – crappy SCM, poor PO prioritization, ridiculous focus on design perfection


Rollout
Rollout organizations can be far reaching.

  • Retained coach

  • Took census of those doing Scrum – proceeded based on result

  • Organized engineering leadership team as “nearly-a-Scrum Team”

    • VP as Product Owner; Scrum zealot as Scrum Master

    • Backlog drawn from Scrum Adoption Playbook

    • Major areas: training/learning, (minimal) process docs on wiki, communication, cross-team collaboration, PM alignment

    • Large CSM training, 4 hr training for non-CSMs

    • Converted teams based on readiness vs. project cycle


Obstacle 1 management risk aversion
Obstacle #1: Management Risk Aversion organizations can be far reaching.

  • All Scrum teams fail for the first few sprints, but management has a need for predictability to meet commitments to the market.

  • Listen to your coach.

  • Trust your people.

  • Remember that you get paid the big bucks to take risks/arrows for your people.


Obstacle 2 architect morale
Obstacle #2: Architect morale organizations can be far reaching.

  • Architects felt threatened by changing definition of job.

  • Architects join teams – tremendous resource for overall design and requirements

  • Lead architect buy-in to help sell


Obstacle 3 process alignment with customers
Obstacle #3: Process alignment with customers organizations can be far reaching.

  • R&D, not bespoke, but PM communicated dates to customers at RUP lifecycle milestones

  • Create a conceptual mapping for RUP milestones to Scrum (not easy but possible, at least for this purpose)


Obstacle 4 chain of command
Obstacle #4: Chain of Command organizations can be far reaching.

  • Scrum Master vs. Engineering Manager

  • Engineering Manager is first point of escalation, works with Product Managers to stay in front backlog-wise


Obstacle 5 compatibility
Obstacle #5: Compatibility organizations can be far reaching.

  • Some people aren’t compatible, either from a skills perspective or a personality one

  • Give people time and training to adjust… but move them out if they cannot adapt


Obstacle 6 maintenance
Obstacle #6: Maintenance organizations can be far reaching.

  • Team focus key to success with Scrum, but teams impeded by support burden

  • Create separate maintenance organization


Lucky factor 1 great people
Lucky Factor #1: Great people organizations can be far reaching.

  • Qpass has always hired great engineers, testers, architects who care

  • Would’ve been very tough to fight horrific project management and horrific engineering simultaneously


Lucky factor 2 executive empowerment
Lucky Factor #2: Executive Empowerment organizations can be far reaching.

  • President not an engineer, trusts VP to do what’s right

  • VPs can use their power for good, not just evil, when their boss focuses on the ends, not the means

  • Lack of VP support would’ve been a killer


Lucky factor 3 great relationships with pm
Lucky Factor #3: Great Relationships with PM organizations can be far reaching.

  • Product Managers take an “us” perspective instead of a “them” perspective, understood the things we were trying to solve

  • Getting this relationship healthy should be first order of business in a Scrum rollout


Lucky factor 4 director of qa was staunch advocate
Lucky Factor #4: Director of QA was staunch advocate organizations can be far reaching.

  • Jeff Heinen acted as thought leader, instead of obstacle – actually cares about quality of software, not a central quality control process


Lucky factor 5 i have no ego
Lucky Factor #5: I have no ego organizations can be far reaching.

  • “Every time you point your finger, three point back at you!”

    – Sister Angelica, Holy Cross Elementary School, Dover, DE

  • Managers and executives: be prepared that you are the source of many root causes of problems


If i could do something different
If I could do something different organizations can be far reaching.

  • More engineer, tester, architect training on Scrum

  • Keep Agile forum alive

  • Metrics would come in handy right now in talking to our new parent company


INTRODUCTION organizations can be far reaching.

SCRUM ADOPTION

ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS


Pd management involvement post scrum

Role of people nominally in PD exec mgmt organizations can be far reaching.

Role of bulk of PD staff

PD Management Involvement Post-Scrum

Executive Management

Product Management

Vision, Strategy

$$ allocation (LOB level)

KPI

Objectives

Resource acquisition / creation

Business ownership / ROI

$$ allocation (Product / Project level)

Value identification and communication

Value delivery

Program / Project Management

Technology Management

Value creation

Visibility

Resource utilization

Impediment removal

Risk management

Software process definition

Technology standards

Vendor management

IP management


Hybrid organization

Scrum Masters organizations can be far reaching.

Engineers

Architects

Perf Eng

Testers

Writers

Hybrid Organization

VP, PD

PGM

Director, Arch

Directors, Dev (3)

Tech Pubs

Mgr, Perf & Platform

Budget / Admin

Tech Standards

Eng Ownership of Products

Doc Standards

Manage, Test, Tune

Manage, Design, Code, Test, Write

(centralize functionally for skill concentration/ refinement)

(2 fewer eng mgr;

1 fewer director)


Role of pd management
Role of PD Management organizations can be far reaching.

  • VP kind of like the Federal Reserve –“intervene under market failure”

  • Long-range planning and budgeting

  • Vision, Strategy

  • Director: partner to PM, advise on backlog, first point of escalation, uphold defn of done

  • Separated “HR hierarchy” from “Project hierarchy” except at most senior levels

    • Role of direct reporting hierarchy is “mentor”


Tech writers
Tech Writers organizations can be far reaching.

  • Works well when dedicated writer on team

  • Writers much more engaged – must be able to “dig in” to software and “write final copy” instead of “edit docs from dev”

  • Attempt to share amongst teams due to staffing shortfall – very hard


Global development
Global Development organizations can be far reaching.

  • To the extent possible, avoided “globally distributed teams”

    • Sometimes required for domain knowledge

  • All teams equally empowered

  • Must do time-shift for periodic coordination


Other thoughts opinions
Other Thoughts, Opinions organizations can be far reaching.

  • Is it ok if the Scrum Master is in the chain of command of the team?

    • Yes, but it depends a lot on the attributes of the individuals

    • Requires sensitivity to “command and control” issues

  • Could a functional org chart work under Scrum?

    • Yes, when barriers to cross-functional self-management are sufficiently broken down.

      • E.g., functional org must stay out of way of project delivery; first loyalty must be to team creating value instead of org chart.

    • Requires talented Scrum Masters.


Other thoughts opinions1
Other Thoughts, Opinions organizations can be far reaching.

  • Does Scrum of Scrums actually work?

    • We’ve had better success with “Scrum swaps” and sometimes “Personnel swaps” – 99% of collaboration is 1 team:1 team

    • Scrum Masters themselves add value with coordination

  • Shared team for shared components?

    • Could work

    • Qpass wanted to err on the side of YAGNI for starters


Scrum provides no organizational guidance but its impact on organizations can be far reaching1
Scrum provides no organizational guidance,* but its impact on organizations can be far reaching.

  • *and it shouldn’t…

    • Too much org variation

    • Let Scrum be for projects


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