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RESPIRATION. ACTIVITY 1. Write down as many terms as you can that are used to describe the respiratory system Bullet point your answers. The air continues into many branching airways known as the bronchial tree. The trachea and bronchi have supporting cartilage to keep the airways open.

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ACTIVITY 1

  • Write down as many terms as you can that are used to describe the respiratory system

  • Bullet point your answers


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The air continues into many branching airways known as the bronchial tree

The trachea and bronchi have supporting cartilage to keep the airways open

Bronchiole walls contain more smooth muscle.

The airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles are called the conducting zone

The air is moistened, warmed and filtered as it flows through these passageways

The air then reaches the respiratory zone


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The respiratory zone bronchial tree

The respiratory zone contains alveoli, tiny thin walled sacs where gas exchanges occurs.

Terminal bronchi

Alveoli

Lets now look at the actual site of diffusion, the respiratory membrane


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ACTIVITY 2 bronchial tree

Complete the following worksheets:

  • WS.1

  • Worksheet 5.1

  • Worksheet 5.2


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ACTIVITY 3 bronchial tree

Highlight the key words within the

following text on IS 1


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MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION DURING EXERCISE bronchial tree

  • What muscles are involved?

  • Inspiration – SCOM (sternocleidomastoid), scalenes & pectoralisminor

  • Expiration – internal intercostals & rectus abdominals / obliques



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Scalenes bronchial tree


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ABDOMINALS bronchial tree


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ACTIVITY 4 bronchial tree

Highlight the key words on IS 2


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Respiratory system – 3 main processes bronchial tree

  • Pulmonary respiration

    • The breathing of air into and out of the lungs

  • External respiration

    • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood

  • Internal respiration

    • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and muscle tissues


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RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST bronchial tree

  • Tidal volume (TV)

    • Amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath (approx 500ml)

  • Frequency (F)

    • Rate of breathing

  • Minute Ventilation (VE)

    • VE = TV X f

  • Residual volume (RV)

    • Volume of air remaining in the lungs (1200ml)


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RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST (Cont’d) bronchial tree

  • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

    The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal

    tidal breath in. The maximum volume of air that can be

    inspired in addition to the tidal volume.

  • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

    The amount of additional air that can be pushed out

    after the end expiratory level of normal breathing

    *see IS 3


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LUNG CAPACITIES bronchial tree

  • Inspiratory capacity = IRV + TV

  • Expiratory capacity = ERV + TV

  • Vital capacity

    • Maximal volume of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration

  • Total lung capacity

    • Maximal volume of air contained in the lungs after a maximal inspiration

    • TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV


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Control of breathing bronchial tree

  • Respiratory Control Centre (RCC) regulates breathing.

  • Located in the medulla oblongata

  • Respiratory muscles – involuntary neural control

  • RCC – 2 areas

    • Inspiratory centre

    • Expiratory centre


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Important terminology bronchial tree

  • Chemoreceptors from within the carotid arteries send information to the inspiratory centre on chemical changes

  • Proprioceptors – muscle movements

  • Thermoreceptors – blood temperature

  • Baroreceptors – stretch receptors


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NEURAL CONTROL DURING EXERCISE bronchial tree

  • Associated muscles (inspiratory centre):

    • Sternocleidomastoid

    • Scalenes

    • Pectoralis minor

  • Associated muscles (expiratory centre):

    • Internal intercostals

    • Rectus abdominus

    • Obliques


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This is summarised on IS 4 bronchial tree

Complete WS2


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