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The 300 Bushel Corn Yield Formula?. Fred E. Below, Adam Henninger, and Matias Ruffo Crop Physiology Laboratory, University of Illinois, and Mosaic Fertilizer. Quest for 300 Bushel Corn. Herman Warsaw’s farm Saybrook, IL July 1985. Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World.

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The 300 Bushel

Corn Yield Formula?

Fred E. Below, Adam Henninger, and Matias Ruffo

Crop Physiology Laboratory, University of Illinois, and Mosaic Fertilizer


Quest for 300 bushel corn
Quest for 300 Bushel Corn

Herman

Warsaw’s farm

Saybrook, IL

July 1985


Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

  • Ranks those factors that each year can have a positive (and sometimes negative) impact on corn yield

  • Gives each factor an average bushel per acre value


Crucial Prerequisites, but Not Yield Wonders

  • Drainage

  • Pest/Weed Control

  • Proper soil pH & adequate levels of P and K based on soil tests


Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

Weather

70+

Nitrogen

70

Hybrid

50

Previous Crop

25

Plant Population

20

Tillage

15

Growth Regulators

10

Total

260 bu

Rank

Factor

Value

bu/acre

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Given key prerequisites


Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World

Rank

Factor

Value

bu/acre %

1

2

Weather

70+ 27

Nitrogen

3

70 26

4

Hybrid

50 19

5

Previous Crop

25 10

6

Plant Population

20 8

7

15 6

Tillage

Growth Regulators

Total =

260bu 100%

10 4

Given key prerequisites


How to Get 300 Bushels?

  • Provide better prerequisites, especially mineral nutrients

  • Try to optimize each of the seven wonders and their positive interactions


Prerequisites for 300 Bushels?

  • Proper soil pH & adequate levels of P and K based on soil tests

  • Fertility- Required amounts of nutrients each year, Sulfur & Micronutrients?


Where are the Positive Interactions?

Rank

Factor

Value

bu/acre %

1

2

Weather

70+ 27

Nitrogen

3

70 26

4

Hybrid

50 19

5

Previous Crop

25 10

6

Plant Population

20 8

7

15 6

Tillage

Growth Regulators

Total =

260bu 100%

10 4


Better N use from Biotechnology Traits?

220

Hybrid Pair 1

Hybrid Pair 2

200

180

Grain yield (bu/acre)

160

140

Refuge

120

VT3

0

50

100

150

200

250

0

50

100

150

200

250

Fertilizer N rate (lb/acre)

Champaign, IL 2008


Better n use from biotechnology traits
Better N use from Biotechnology Traits

*different from non-RW counterpart P< 0.05


Greater nutrient removal with grain as a result of biotechnology traits
Greater Nutrient Removal with Grain as a Result of Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2008, average of two hybrid pairs


How to Get 300 Bushels? Biotechnology Traits

  • Better prerequisites along with packages of optimized yield wonders.

  • Is the value of combined factors greater than their individual impact?


Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World Biotechnology Traits

Weather

70+

Nitrogen

70

Hybrid

50

Previous Crop

25

Plant Population

20

Tillage

15

Growth Regulators

10

Total

260 bu

Rank

Factor

Value

bu/acre

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Improved Fertility Prerequisites


Factors for Standard Practice Biotechnology Traits

Fertility No P or K based on soil test

Nitrogen 180 lbs pre-plant as UAN

Genetics RR Hybrid (DKC 61-22)

with soil insecticide at planting

Population 32,000 plants/ac final stand

in 30 inch rows

Fungicide No Fungicide


Factors in High Tech Package Biotechnology Traits

Fertility 100 lbs P2O5 as MESZ

supplies P, S, and Zn

Nitrogen 100 lb extra N as SuperUrea

as sidedress to assure available N

Genetics Triple stack (DKC 61-19)

with soil insecticide at planting

Population 45,000 plants/ac final stand

in 30 inch rows

Fungicide Strobilurin at flowering

Headline or Quilt-Xcel



Omission Plots 2009 Biotechnology Traits

  • DeKalb

    • Planted May 31

    • Hard Frost October 10

  • Champaign

    • Planted May 26

  • Dixon Springs

    • Planted June 8

  • All Sites

    • 180 lbs base N as UAN

    • DKC 61-19 or 61-22

    • Soybean as previous crop

    • Conventional tillage

DeKalb

Champaign

Dixon

Springs


High tech package vs traditional champaign 2009

High Tech Package vs Traditional Champaign-2009 Biotechnology Traits

High Tech Package

Traditional

Pictures taken at R5 on 9/17/09 by Adam Henninger


High tech package versus traditional champaign 2009
High Tech Package versus Traditional Biotechnology TraitsChampaign - 2009

High Technology Package

Traditional Practice

For 1/1000 of an acre


Yield Enhancement with High Tech Package Biotechnology Traits

* Significance difference (p<0.10)

Data from 2009


Omit From High Tech - Champaign Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 12


Traditional vs High Tech - Champaign Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 12


Omit From High Tech – Dixon Springs Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 13


Traditional vs High Tech – Dixon Springs Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 13


Omit From High Tech - DeKalb Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 11


Traditional vs High Tech– DeKalb Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 11


Omission Plot – Average Three Sites Biotechnology Traits

LSD (p<0.10) = 7

Data from DeKalb, Champaign and Dixon Springs 2009


Increasing plant population with twin rows
Increasing Plant Population with Twin Rows Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2009


Twin-Row Demonstration-2009 Biotechnology Traits

Fertility At Planting (mg/planted plant)

N 225

P2O5 595

K2O 212

S 50

Zn 5

Population 35, 45, 55 x 1000 plants/ac

all in 7.5” centered twin rows

Fungicide Strobilurin at flowering

with and without Headline

DKC 64-24, 180 lbs N/acre pre-plant as UAN, mulch tillage, planted May 22


AGCO-White Research Twin Row Planter Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2009


Soil Conditions at Planting Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2009


Seedling emergence
Seedling Emergence Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2009


Plant spacing with twin rows
Plant Spacing with Twin Rows Biotechnology Traits

35,000 plants/acre

55,000 plants/acre

Champaign, IL 2009


Vegetative growth
Vegetative Growth Biotechnology Traits

Champaign, IL 2009


Late Vegetative Growth Biotechnology Traits


Plant population and fungicide application in twin rows
Plant Population and Fungicide Application in Twin Rows Biotechnology Traits

* Significance difference between fungicide treatment (p<0.10)

Champaign, IL 2009


Quest for 300 Bushel Cor Biotechnology Traitsn

University of Illinois

Research Farm

Champaign, IL November 2009


Conclusions
Conclusions Biotechnology Traits

  • Big yield gains are possible from crop management that provides better Fertility along with packages of optimized Yield Wonders

  • The yield value of an individual factor is small compared to the combined value of all factors


Acknowledgements Biotechnology Traits

  • Personnel

  • Brad Bandy

  • Ryan Becker

  • Fernando Cantao

  • Jason Haegele

  • Mark Harrison

  • Jim Kleiss

  • Bianca Moria

  • Juliann Seebauer

  • Martín Uribelarrea

  • Mike Vincent

  • Wendy White

  • Matt Wiebers

  • Financial Support

  • Mosaic

  • BASF

  • GrowMark

  • Syngenta

  • Agrotain

  • AGCO

  • Fert Res Ed Council


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