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Nutrients and Nutrient Requirements. Topic 3041 Anna Blight. Nutrients. Any feed component that functions in the support of life. Carbon (C) Calcium (Ca) Chlorine (Cl) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen (H) Iodine (I) Iron (Fe) Magnesium (Mg). Manganese (Mn)

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Nutrients and nutrient requirements l.jpg

Nutrients and Nutrient Requirements

Topic 3041

Anna Blight


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Nutrients

Any feed component that functions in the support of life


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Carbon (C)

Calcium (Ca)

Chlorine (Cl)

Cobalt (Co)

Copper (Cu)

Fluorine (F)

Hydrogen (H)

Iodine (I)

Iron (Fe)

Magnesium (Mg)

Manganese (Mn)

Molybdenum (Mo)

Nitrogen (N)

Oxygen (O)

Phosphorus (P)

Potassium (K)

Selenium (Se)

Sodium (Na)

Sulfur (S)

Zinc (Zn)

20 Chemical Elements in Nutrients


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Six Basic Classes of Nutrients

  • Water

  • Carbohydrates

  • Fats

  • Proteins

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals


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Concentrates

Cereal grains

Oil meals

Molasses

Dried milk products

Roughages

Hays and straws

Silage

Cut green feeds

Grazed forages

Composition of Feeds


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Concentrates

  • High in energy

  • Low in fiber

  • Highly digestible

  • Includes corn, wheat, barley, oats, milo, soybean meal, linseed meal, and cottonseed meal


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Roughages

  • Less digestible than concentrates

  • Bulkier, coarser feed


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Water

  • Most important nutrient

  • Contains hydrogen and oxygen

  • Transports other nutrients

  • Helps maintain normal body temperature


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Carbohydrates

  • Major energy source

  • Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

  • Found in grains and hays


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Fats

  • Fats and oils are primary energy source

  • 2.25 times more energy / pound than carbohydrates

  • Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


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Protein

  • Only nutrient class that contains nitrogen

  • Protein in feeds contain average of 16% nitrogen

  • Building blocks of the body

  • Proteins compose most of the muscle mass


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Minerals

  • Elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

  • Macrominerals are required in larger amounts

  • Microminerals required in smaller amounts

  • Necessary for healthy body functions


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Vitamins

  • Organic nutrients, contain carbon

  • Provide for very specific body functions

  • Required in very small amounts

  • 16 known vitamins in animal nutrition

  • A, C, D, E, K, choline and the B-complex vitamins


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Energy

  • Two basic functions run by energy

  • are maintenance and reproduction

  • Supplied by nutrients containing carbon

  • Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all supply

  • energy

  • Energy evaluation of feeds is measured

  • by total digestible nutrients, digestible

  • energy, energy for metabolism, and

  • net energy


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Importance of Nutrition

Energy supplied by nutrients are used to drive a variety of body functions and power animal movement


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Healthy and productive livestock require proper nutrition

Reference

Taylor, R.E., Field, T.G. (1998).

Scientific Farm Animal Production.

Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Pp. 269-282.


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