Motivation and Emotion. Theories of Motivation. 1 – Instinct Theory Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior
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States that an organism’s behavior is motivated by external stimuli, such as reinforcers or rewards.
Different from the cognitive theory because this is more behavioral
Behavior driven by desire, not needIncentive theory
This theory may explain behaviors that don’t appear driven by biological factors
Why do some people feel the need to drive fast or ride on roller coasters? What is the drive behind this need? Some call it sensation-seekingArousal theory cont’d
Gender Dimensions Male Female trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates
8. Gender identity Perceives self Perceives self
as male as female
9. Gender role Masculine Feminine
Gender identity is self-defined
Gender role is socially-definedGender Dimensions
Kinsey report – trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates
Kinsey Scale – ranged from 0-6 where a 0 was exclusively heterosexual and a 6 was exclusively homosexual
Kinsey interviewed people to obtain their views on sexual behaviorPsychology of sexual behavior
4 Phases of Sexual Development trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates
Refractory periodMasters and Johnson
Wanted to understand the sexual responses of males and females to see how they are different
Wanted to understand why some people don’t respond in a typical fashion – sexual disordersMasters and Johnson
Estrogen is found in higher amounts in females
Testosterone found in higher amounts in males
Testosterone is responsible for a person’s libido, so when levels drop, so does sexual desire
As people age, their levels drop so males and females may have less desire, for a….ya know!Hormones and sexuality
In women who have had their ovaries removed, their testosterone levels drop by half
Women who are on estrogen replacement therapy will also see their levels drop
“Treat others as you would like to be treated”
• Set specific goals—avoid more generally stated ones, such as “Do your best.”
• Set challenging goals—when realistic and attainable, they motivate better than easy ones.
• Build commitment—people work harder for goals they accept and believe in.
• Clarify priorities—expectations should be clear on which goals to pursue first.
• Provide feedback—people need to know how well they are doing.
• Reward results—don’t let accomplishments pass unnoticed.