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Motivation and Emotion. Theories of Motivation. 1 – Instinct Theory Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior

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Motivation and Emotion

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Motivation and emotion

Motivation and Emotion

Theories of motivation

Theories of Motivation

  • 1 – Instinct Theory

    • Innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior

      • In animals, we look at a fixed action pattern – where an innate biological force predisposes an organism to behave in a certain way under certain environmental conditions

Motivation and emotion

  • 2 – Drive-Reduction Theory

  • States that a need results in a drive, which is a state of tension that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and return the body to homeostasis

  • Homeostasis – tendency for the body to return and remain in a more balanced physiological state

Drive reduction theory cont d

Drive-Reduction theory cont’d

  • There are two types of drives in this theory:

    • Primary drives: biological needs – same for everyone

    • Secondary drives: learned needs – vary from person to person

Incentive theory

3. Incentive theory

States that an organism’s behavior is motivated by external stimuli, such as reinforcers or rewards.

Different from the cognitive theory because this is more behavioral

Behavior driven by desire, not need

Incentive theory

Motivation and emotion

  • 4. – Arousal theory –

    • When level of stimulation drops below the organism’s optimum level, the organism will seek ways of increasing the stimulation. Those with a high need for arousal will seek exciting experiences, called sensation-seekers – often get bored and may be unable to restrain impulses

    • When level of stimulation exceeds optimal level, the organism will seek ways of decreasing the stimulation

Arousal theory cont d

This theory may explain behaviors that don’t appear driven by biological factors

Why do some people feel the need to drive fast or ride on roller coasters? What is the drive behind this need? Some call it sensation-seeking

Arousal theory cont’d

Arousal and performance

Arousal and Performance

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law

    • People perform best under moderate conditions of arousal – that is, a little anxiety or stress goes a long way for people

    • However, too little arousal or too much arousal may hinder performance

Maslow s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

What makes us hungry

What makes us hungry?

  • Biological perspective – Brain mechanisms involved in eating behavior

    • Lateral hypothalamus–when stimulated the organism eats, when destroyed the animal starves

    • Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus-when stimulated, the animal stops eating, but when lesioned the animal continuously eats (hyperphagia)

Motivation and emotion

Study the diagram and see if you can see why the system - as set out in the diagram - might not maintain homeostasis.

Motivation and emotion

  • Neuropeptide Y(neurotransmitter)-too much in your system may trigger one to binge eat-especially carbohydrates

  • Leptin is a chemical released by the brain that curbs appetite – reduces brain’s production of neuropeptide Y

  • It is believed that dopamine and endorphins may be released when eating behaviors occur – eating is associated with pleasant feelings

  • Serotonin-associated with feelings of being full

Other biological factors

Other biological factors

  • Set point – the tendency for the body to remain at the same weight over a period of time. May fluctuate by a few pounds, but centers around that set point

  • Metabolic rate – those with higher rates will burn calories quicker, while those with lower rates burn calories slower

What makes us hungry1

What makes us hungry?

  • Behavioral perspective –

    • Learned preferences – whatever you have in your environment is what you will get used to eating and will become a part of your diet

    • Food-related cues – smells, sights, sounds, etc. may stimulate hunger

    • Stress – need I say more? Stress keeps Ben and Jerry’s in business

Social cultural influence

Social-Cultural Influence

  • Cultural changes and influences affect a population’s overall weight issues

  • Some countries used to be very healthy, but currently are experiencing many health problems – e.g., Czech Republic, China

  • American culture tends to put a lot of pressure on women to be thin. This has led many women to overestimate their weight – may contribute to eating disorders

Personality traits

Personality Traits

  • People with these personality traits have been associated with overeating:

    • Being overly sensitive to rejection

    • Being excessively concerned about approval from others

    • Having high personal standards for achievement

    • Having suffered from physical or sexual abuse

    • Having suffered from depression, anxiety, mood swings

Sex and gender

Sex and Gender

  • Sex refers to the biological aspects of being male or female (and the physical acts of intercourse/masturbation)

    • Sex differences are physical differences

  • Gender refers to the psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex

    • Gender differences result from people’s thinking about gender

Gender dimensions

Gender DimensionsMaleFemale

8. Gender identityPerceives selfPerceives self

as maleas female

9. Gender roleMasculineFeminine

Gender identity is self-defined

Gender role is socially-defined

Gender Dimensions

Determinants of gender identity

Determinants of Gender Identity

  • Gender identity refers to the personal view of oneself as male or as female

  • Environmental factors were assumed to be central determinants of gender identity (John Money)

    • The case of the castrated identical twin whose gender identity was reassigned following a botched circumcision was taken as important evidence for the role of environmental factors

      • Problem: he later rejected the reassignment and took on a male gender identity (now this case supports a biological view of gender identity)

Gender role development

Gender Role Development

  • Gender roles are societal expectations for normal and appropriate female and male behavior

    • Social-learning theory argues that gender roles develop as children:

      • receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors

      • watch and imitate the behaviors of others

Psychology of sexual behavior

Kinsey report –

Kinsey Scale – ranged from 0-6 where a 0 was exclusively heterosexual and a 6 was exclusively homosexual

Kinsey interviewed people to obtain their views on sexual behavior

Psychology of sexual behavior

Kinsey scale

Kinsey Scale

Sexual orientation

Sexual Orientation

  • Homosexuality may reflect the impact of biological factors on sexual orientation

    • Biological factors are supported by twin studies that suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation

  • Homosexuality does not reflect

    • Poor parenting: smothering mother, detached father

    • Arrested development or an immature personality

    • Childhood seduction by adults

    • Modeling of homosexual behaviors and views from others

Masters and johnson

4 Phases of Sexual Development




Resolution Period

Refractory period

Masters and Johnson

Masters and johnson1

Wanted to understand the sexual responses of males and females to see how they are different

Wanted to understand why some people don’t respond in a typical fashion – sexual disorders

Masters and Johnson

Hormones and sexuality

While estrogen and testosterone are produced in males and females:

Estrogen is found in higher amounts in females

Testosterone found in higher amounts in males

Testosterone is responsible for a person’s libido, so when levels drop, so does sexual desire

As people age, their levels drop so males and females may have less desire, for a….ya know!

Hormones and sexuality

Motivation and emotion

In women who have had their ovaries removed, their testosterone levels drop by half

Women who are on estrogen replacement therapy will also see their levels drop

Sexual dysfunctions

Sexual Dysfunctions

  • Male sexual problems

    • Impotence (inability to maintain an erection)

    • Premature ejaculation

  • Male and Female

    • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

    • Inhibited desire

    • Sexual aversion

  • Female

    • Orgasmic dysfunction

    • Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal muscles)

Drug actions on sexuality

Drug Actions on Sexuality

  • Alcohol: Reduced testes size and suppressed hormone function

  • Cocaine: Erectile disorder, inhibited orgasm, lowered sperm counts

  • Barbiturates: Reduced desire, erectile disorder, delayed orgasm

  • Marijuana: Reduced testosterone levels, reduced desire

  • Tobacco: Decreases the frequency and duration of erections and of vaginal lubrication

Motivation at work


“Treat others as you would like to be treated”

  • How do human needs influence motivation to work?

  • How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?

  • What role does reinforcement play in motivation?

Human needs

Human Needs

  • Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

    • Hygiene Factor

      • is found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.

    • Motivator Factor

      • is found in job content, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth.

Expectancy theory

Expectancy Theory

  • people are motivated because they want to satisfy needs

  • know that if they put forth some level of effort, their needs will be satisfied

  • Show workers that if they work hard, their needs will be satisfied

Motivation human needs


  • McClelland’s Acquired Needs

    • Need for Achievement

      • is the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

    • Need for Power

      • is the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people.

    • Need for Affiliation

      • Is the desire to establish and maintain good relations with other people.

Motivation thought processes and decisions

MOTIVATIONThought Processes and Decisions

  • Adams’ Equity Theory

    • Explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior

    • Any perceived inequities will motivate us to behave in a manner that will change them



  • Locke’s Goal-setting Theory

    • emphasizes the motivational power of goals that are specific and challenging.


• Set specific goals—avoid more generally stated ones, such as “Do your best.”

• Set challenging goals—when realistic and attainable, they motivate better than easy ones.

• Build commitment—people work harder for goals they accept and believe in.

• Clarify priorities—expectations should be clear on which goals to pursue first.

• Provide feedback—people need to know how well they are doing.

• Reward results—don’t let accomplishments pass unnoticed.

Motivation at work1

Motivation at Work

  • 360-degree feedback



  • Task Leadership

    • goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

  • Social Leadership

    • group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support



  • Theory X

    • assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money

    • workers should be directed from above

  • Theory Y

    • assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity

Theories of emotion

Theories of emotion

  • You hear a car backfire – What would the James-Lange theory say would be the changes you would experience?

  • 1. James-Lange

    • A. Person has a physiological change, usually the sympathetic nervous system is activated

    • B. James-Lange stated that there are different physiological responses for different emotions

Motivation and emotion

  • C. Your brain then analyzes and interprets these physiological patterns

  • D. James-Lange stated that based on the pattern of physiological responses you now can assign a label.

  • Then your behavior will reflect that label

James lange


Theories of emotion1

Theories of Emotion

  • What would be the sequence of events according to Cannon-Bard after hearing the car backfire?

  • 2. Cannon-Bard-there is a stimulus, then subcortical activity and then the subjective experience of an emotion and bodily reactions occur simultaneously.

  • State that emotions are NOT caused by physiological changes

Cannon bard


Theories of emotion2

Theories of Emotion

  • What would be the sequence of events according to Schachter after hearing the car backfire?

  • 3. Schachter-Singer (two-factor)

    • States that there is physiological arousal

    • We then do a cognitive appraisal of the arousal in terms of what it means

    • We then experience an emotional feeling and then express behaviors that match those emotions

Schacter singer two factor

Schacter-Singer (two-factor)

Robert zajonc

Robert Zajonc

  • Says we have emotions before we label them

  • Says we must feel the emotions before we can label them

  • Research seems to back up that the brain interprets emotion before cognition

Motivation and emotion

  • The psychologist Paul Ekman and his colleagues have identified six basic emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust. Worldwide, most people can identify the facial expressions that correspond to these emotions.

Facial feedback hypothesis

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

  • The brain uses feedback from facial muscles to recognize emotions that are being experienced.

  • Making the facial expression corresponding to a particular emotion can make a person feel that emotion

Children and facial expressions

Children and facial expressions

  • children aren't more likely to read more negative content into emotions

  • They are very good at identifying the ones they do see

  • Children tend to be better at labeling the emotions of faces than older people

Motivation and emotion

  • Results of studies have revealed that children aged 3 to 5 years are able to accurately identify and label emotions of happy, sad, and angry regardless of whether they see the face only or hear the voice only

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