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How Risky is It? An assessment of the relative risk of engaging in potentially unsafe driving behaviors AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety Established in 1947 501 (c)(3) Not-For-Profit Research affiliate of AAA/CAA North American Focus Mission Identify traffic safety problems

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How Risky is It?An assessment of the relative risk of engaging in potentially unsafe driving behaviors


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AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

  • Established in 1947

  • 501 (c)(3) Not-For-Profit

  • Research affiliate of AAA/CAA

  • North American Focus


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Mission

  • Identify traffic safety problems

  • Foster research that seeks solutions

  • Disseminate information and educational materials



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Published December 2006

Prepared by:

Virginia Tech Transportation Institute

Available online at:

www.aaafoundation.org


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Purpose of Study

  • Perform additional analysis of data collected under previous 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study to investigate impacts of various behaviors on crash risk

  • Behaviors studied:

    • speeding

    • drowsy driving

    • aggressive driving

    • distracted driving


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The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study

  • $3 Million study sponsored by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Virginia DOT, and Virginia Tech

  • Conducted by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute

  • Collected unprecedented level of driving data pre-crash and normal driving behavior


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100-Car Study “Naturalistic” Approach

  • Used in-vehicle camera and custom-built advanced “black box” to monitor drivers

    • 100 equipped vehicles

    • 12-13 months of data collection, no “experimenter” present

    • Subjects not “coached,” instructed to drive “as usual”

    • Instrumentation was unobtrusive and inconspicuous to other drivers, but not invisible

    • NHTSA-sponsored work indicates subjects’ driving was uninfluenced by in-vehicle monitoring after the first few hours (out of 12-13 months)


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100-Car Study Equipment

Driver Face Camera

Forward Road Camera

“Black Box”


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100-Car Study Camera Views


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100-Car Study Camera Views


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100-Car Study Participants

  • 109 primary drivers

    • Ages 18-68

    • 60% male, 40% female

    • Recruited in Washington DC & Northern VA

    • Range from “very safe” to “very unsafe”

    • Wide range of driving mileage

    • Drove on all road classes

    • Mostly urban & suburban driving, some rural

    • Drove sedans and SUVs

    • Also 132 secondary drivers


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100-Car Study Database Statistics

Captured data on:

  • 42,300 hours and ~2 million miles of driving

  • 82 Crashes and collisions

    • Defined as any contact between the subject vehicle and another vehicle, object, pedestrian, cyclist, or animal

  • 761 Near crashes

    • Defined as a conflict situation requiring a rapid, severe evasive maneuver to avoid a crash

  • 8,295 Incidents

    • Conflict requiring an evasive maneuver, but of less magnitude than a near crash

  • 20,000 normal baseline driving epochs

    • To compare driver behavior during normal driving to behavior leading up to crashes, near crashes, and incidents


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This Study

  • Investigated the frequency with which drivers engage in various potentially risky behaviors during ordinary driving and immediately prior to crashes, near-crashes, and incidents

  • Analyzed the impacts of various behaviors on the risk of being involved in a crash or near-crash



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Results – Risk of Crash or Near Crash

Note: Odds of crash or near-crash with behavior present vs. absent; computed using logistic regression to control for other behaviors; odds ratio > 1 indicates increased risk


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Conclusions

  • The odds of being involved in a crash are nearly tripled when driving while drowsy or driving faster than surrounding traffic.

  • The odds of being involved in a crash are approximately doubled when driving aggressively or when looking away from the road for longer than 2 seconds.


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For more information on the 100-Car Study, please go to:

http://www.vtti.vt.edu

and click on 100-Car Study

Or go to:

http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-13/newDriverDistraction.html


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For more information about this study sponsored by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety,

please go to:

www.aaafoundation.org


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The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety is a 501(c)(3) public charity located in Washington, DC that is dedicated to saving lives and reducing injuries.

It is supported by donations from AAA/CAA Clubs, AAA/CAA members, and other organizations associated with AAA/CAA.


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