Ethnicity

Ethnicity PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ethnicity

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1. Ethnicity A World View

3. What Defines an “Ethnicity”? Factors inherent in human selfhood and the "psyche" home family values relationship styles foundational beliefs holding a related group of people together. Worldview issues entails a common history customs sense of oneness social structures holding the related people together

4. What is an Ethnic Group? An ethnic group is a group of human individuals who share a common, unique self-identity. An ethnic group is also called a “people” or a “people group.” A common technical term for an ethnic group is “ethnolinguistic.”

5. Ethnicity The “ethno” in “ethnolinguistic” refers to other aspects of culture that make up “ethnicity.” Usually there is a common self-name and a sense of common identity of individuals identified with the group. Some other common ethnic factors that define or distinguish a people are: 1. a common history, 2. customs, 3. family and clan identities, as well as 4. marriage rules and practices, 5. age-grades and other obligation covenants, and 6. inheritance patterns and rules. What they call themselves may vary at different levels of identity, or among various sub-groups.

6. Some Basic Terminology Racial group: inherited biological traits Myths: racial superiority, racial purity Ethnic group: shared cultural traits Minority group: shared distinctive identity, treated unequally by dominant group Prejudice (attitude): rigid, often irrational, generalization about an entire category of people (can be positive or negative)

7. Patterns of Inter-Group Relations Genocide: systemic annihilation (facilitated by labeling target groups as less than fully human) Population transfer: movement of entire groups of people (direct or indirect) Internal colonialism: dominant group exploits minorities for labor but denies rights through social institutions Segregation: physical and social separation (accompanies internal colonialism) Assimilation: minorities adopt patterns of mainstream culture Pluralism (multiculturalism): encourages and accepts distinct racial and ethnic variation

8. The Vicious Cycle of Racism

9. Ethnicities into Nationalities Rise of nationalities Nation-states Nationalism Multinational states Former Soviet Union Russia Turmoil in the Caucasus Revival of ethnic identity Ethnicity and communism Rebirth of nationalism in Eastern Europe

10. Republics of the Soviet Union

11. Nationality Nationality is identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country. Nationality and ethnicity are similar concepts in that membership in both is defined through shared cultural values.

12. Ethnic Groups in Russia

14. Ethnicities in the Caucasus

16. Ethnicities of Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq

17. Clashes of Ethnicities Ethnic competition to dominate nationality Ethnic competition in the Horn of Africa Ethnic competition in Lebanon Dividing ethnicities among more than one state Dividing ethnicities in South Asia Dividing Sri Lanka among ethnicities

18. Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa

19. Ethnicities in Lebanon

21. Ethnic formal culture regions

23. The 56 Ethnicities of China

24. Ethnic Division of South Asia Religions of South Asia, 1909 Partition of South Asia Between India and Pakistan, 1947

25. Jammu and Kashmir

26. Sinhalese & Tamils in Sri Lanka

27. Multi-Ethnic & Multi-National States Multi-ethnic state – a country containing more than one ethnicity in which all ethnicities contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality, e.g. Belgium Dutch-speaking Flemish and the French-speaking Walloons). Multi-national state – a country containing many ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities, e.g. the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

28. Ethnic Cleansing Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia Creation of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia Destruction of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia Ethnic cleansing in central Africa

29. Irredentism Irredentism is any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. Some of these movements are also called pan movements. It is a feature of identity politics and cultural and political geography. Since most borders have been moved and redrawn at one point, a great many countries could theoretically present irredentist claims to their neighbors.

33. Forced Migrations after World War Two

36. The Balkans in 1914

37. Enemies who Speak the Same Language Some people groups find their worst enemies in other ethnic groups speaking the same mother tongue. Sometimes they are actual cousin peoples. One example is found in Bosnia. Three traditional enemies there, the Serbs, the Croats and the Muslims, all speak Serbo-Croatian. Yet they are separated by clear boundaries of culture, history, religion and self-identity.

38. Languages in Southeastern Europe

39. Enduring Ethnic Prejudice in Europe Autochthones - an aboriginal inhabitant, one of the indigenous peoples of a region. Allochthones – non-indigenous peoples, among them the Roma, who are excluded from the political, cultural, economic, social and geographical center and are deemed to stay out of official cultural history. Roma (Gypsies) – among the last Goddess-worshipers in Europe, probably originating in the Indus Valley. Romani groups around the world hold different traditions, customs and beliefs and generally have absorbed the gajikane (non-Roma) local culture.

40. Ethnic Regions in Yugoslavia

41. Bridge in Mostar, Yugoslavia

42. Bridge Destroyed in Bosnian War 1993

43. Rebuilt Bridge, 2004

44. Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo

45. Ethnic Changes in Yugoslavia

46. Ethnicities in Africa

47. Black “Homelands” in South Africa

54. Enemies who Speak the Same Language The whole world knows about the Tutsi and Hutu in Burundi and Rwanda. These two groups from different historical origins have shared the same language and culture for centuries. Yet they have maintained distinct social and ethnic identities for almost 2000 years.

55. Related Peoples with Different Languages For over a century the Arabs in East Africa have spoken Swahili as their sole mother tongue, as have the Shirazi in Mombasa for centuries. But the Arabs have maintained their self-identity as Arabs, both by name and culture, and maintained contacts with Arabs from Oman, Yemen and other Arab countries, some even learning Arabic as a second language. Thus the Shirazi Swahili and the East African Arabs speak the same language and they are quite close in culture and religion. But they definitely don’t consider themselves related.

56. Multi-Ethnic & Multi-National States Multi-ethnic state – a country containing more than one ethnicity in which all ethnicities contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality, e.g. Belgium Dutch-speaking Flemish and the French-speaking Walloons). Multi-national state – a country containing many ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities, e.g. the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

57. Irredentism Irredentism is any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. Some of these movements are also called pan movements. It is a feature of identity politics and cultural and political geography. Since most borders have been moved and redrawn at one point, a great many countries could theoretically present irredentist claims to their neighbors.

58. Key Concepts Balkanization Ethnic cleansing Ethnicity Multi-ethnic state Multinational state Nation-state Race Racism Ethnic islands Ethnic homelands Assimilation Acculturation Genocide Pluralism Irredentism

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