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PAP Bio 9/5-6 WU Finish experimental design/ set up Eco II PP HW : no change. Ecology. Energy Flow. Autotrophs are producers , they can synthesize their own organic nutrients. They can do this by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ecology' - Mercy

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  • PAP Bio 9/5-6

  • WU

  • Finish experimental design/ set up

  • Eco II PP

  • HW: no change

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Energy Flow

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  • Autotrophs areproducers, they can synthesize their own organic nutrients.

  • They can do this by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

  • Chemosynthetic bacteria get energy and raw materials from vents called "smokers" on the ocean floor.

  • Tube worms rely upon the bacteria that coexist with them to make food at the bottom of the ocean.

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  • Heterotrophsare consumers, they must consume preformed organic nutrients synthesized by other organisms.


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Examples of heterotrophs:

  • Saprophytes are decomposers they eat dead or decaying material. Examples are mushrooms and bacteria of decay.

  • Scavengers – eat carrion

  • Herbivores- eat plants

  • Carnivores- eat meat

  • Omnivores- eat both plants and meat

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"What shall I eat today...meat or veggies....."

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SYMBIOSIS means "living together"

  • Types of Symbiosis

  • parasitism: the parasite benefits at the expense of the host

  • mutualism: both organisms benefit from the association

  • commensalism: one organism is benefited and the other is unharmed

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  • A chain indicates the transfer of energy from producers through a series of organisms which feed upon each other

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  • The algae and plants are the to.producers.

  • The aquatic crustaceans are primary consumers – they eat the producers.

  • Fish are secondary consumers – they eat the primary consumers.

  • The raccoons represent a 3rd level of consumer.

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Food Webs to.

  • A food web is a series of interrelated food chains which provides a more accurate picture of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem, as more than one thing will usually eat a particular species.    

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Trophic Levels to.

  • An energy pyramid provides a means of describing the feeding and energy relationships within a food chain or web.   

  • Each step of an energy pyramid shows that some energy is stored in newly made structures of the organism which eats the preceding one.  

  • The pyramid also shows that much of the energy is lost when one organism in a food chain eats another.   Most of this energy which is lost goes into the environment as heat energy.

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or tertiary to.

  • Producer organisms represent the greatest amount of living tissue or biomass at the bottom of the pyramid.  

  • The organisms which occupy the rest of the pyramid belong to the feeding levels indicated in each step. 

  • On average, each feeding level only contains 10% of the energy as the one below it, with the energy that is lost mostly being transformed to heat.