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CINC Scores as measures of power concentration, 1816-2000.
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"International finance has become so interdependent and so interwoven with trade and industry that ... political and military power can in reality do nothing.... These little recognized facts, mainly the outcome of purely modern conditions (rapidity of communication creating a greater complexity and delicacy of the credit system), have rendered the problems of modern international politics profoundly and essentially different from the ancient.“ – Norman Angell, 1910
1816 - 1913
Rhetoric vs. Reality
Note that different views of American domestic politics led to different foreign policies!
“The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America…. we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.”
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations... To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
(A list of 27 grievances)
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
“The spirit of all our acts hitherto has been an earnest, unselfish desire for peace and prosperity in Cuba, untarnished by differences between us and Spain and unstained by the blood of American citizens…”
“The present condition of affairs in Cuba is a constant menace to our peace…”
“In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests which give us the right and the duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop…”
“This race has been honored not for its own sake for the sake of the world. It has been made . . . powerful not to make subject, but to serve; . . . free not simply to exult in freedom, but to make free; exalted not to look down, but to lift up.”
“When I next realized that the Philippines had dropped into our laps I confess I did not know what to do with them. . . . I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance … And one night late it came to me this way…there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God\'s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died.”
US suffers 4324 dead, rebels suffer 20,000 dead. Civilian deaths are more than 200,000.
“What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life...”
Example: Clinton Speech
Well, are we?