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The four spheres of Earth’s environment. Biosphere interacting with abiotic factors. Fig 3-1. Periodic Chart of Elements John Wiley — Resource Manager CD-ROM. N-CHOPS. Law of the Minimum/Law of limiting factors - Liebig's Law. Justus von Liebig "father of the fertilizer industry”

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The four spheres of Earth’s environment.

Biosphere interacting with abiotic factors

Fig 3-1


Periodic Chart of ElementsJohn Wiley — Resource Manager CD-ROM

N-CHOPS


Law of the Minimum/Law of limiting factors - Liebig's Law

Justus von Liebig

"father of the fertilizer industry”

law of the minimum

If one crop nutrient is missing or deficient, plant growth will be poor, even if the other elements are abundant.

like a barrel with unequal boards

One nutrient becomes the limiting factor


Energy changes in organisms and ecosystems (Fig 3-12)

Light energy chemical energy

Many calories of light energy to produce a few calories of carbohydrate


Primary production

GPP= NPP + energy used by the plants




Basic principles of ecosystem sustainability
Basic Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability

  • For sustainability, ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy.

  • For sustainability, ecosystems dispose of wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements.


Continuous input

Recycling



The carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle

  • How and in what form does carbon enter and leave the cycle?

  • How do the roles of autotrophs and heterotrophs differ?

  • What are the human impacts on the cycle?



The phosphorus cycle
The Phosphorus Cycle

  • How and in what form(s) does phosphorus enter and leave the cycle?

  • How do the roles of autotrophs and heterotrophs differ?

  • What are the human impacts on the cycle?



The nitrogen cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle

  • How and in what form(s) does nitrogen enter and leave the cycle?

  • How do the roles of autotrophs and heterotrophs differ?

  • What are the human impacts on the cycle?




Microcystis

Anabaena

Cyanobacteria


Quick Quiz

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are 2 of the main components in fertilizer for agriculture and your garden.

How does the source of these materials for human use differ?

How does the difference in source affect their potential availability?

What happens to excess Nitrogen and Phosphorus that is put on farm fields? What happens to the N & P not used by crops?


There is much talk in the news about carbon emissions and high CO2 causing global warming.

Plants take up CO2 during photosynthesis.

Why don’t plant just take up all the extra CO2 and get it out of the atmosphere?


Hydrologic cycle high CO

Fig 9-3


What limits production? high CO

Low N & P

Low rain



Fig 3-23 high CO. Flow of nutrients in human society

The Human System:

How can we make it sustainable?


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