Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Download
1 / 9

antimicrobial chemotherapy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 484 Views
  • Updated On :

Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. The Development of Chemotherapy General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activity Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs Factors Influencing Effectiveness Drug Resistance. The Development of Chemotherapy.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'antimicrobial chemotherapy' - Mercy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Antimicrobial chemotherapy l.jpg
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

  • The Development of Chemotherapy

  • General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs

  • Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activity

  • Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs

  • Factors Influencing Effectiveness

  • Drug Resistance


The development of chemotherapy l.jpg
The Development of Chemotherapy

  • Early 20th century

    • 1904: Ehrlich found that the dye trypan red was effective against Trypanosoma (sleeping sickness)

    • Arspheniamine (Salvarsan) against syphilis

    • Quinine against malaria

    • Various dyes (including gentian violet); disinfectants; heavy metals were tried as antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents

    • Antisera were also used; for example, anti-sterptococcal antisera used against scarlet fever


The development of chemotherapy3 l.jpg
The Development of Chemotherapy

  • Sulfa drugs:

    • 1927: Domagk discovered that the dye Prontosil Red was effective against staphlococcal and streptococcal infections; later in 1935 it was found that Protonsil red was converted to sulfonamide in the body

  • Penicillin

    • Produced by Penicillium notatum

    • Discovered in 1928 by Fleming

    • Method of mass production developed in late 1930s - early 1940s by Chain and Florey


The development of chemotherapy4 l.jpg
The Development of Chemotherapy

  • Streptomycin

    • Produced by Streptomyces griseus

    • Discovered in 1944 by Waksman after screening 10,000 soil isolates

    • Following its discovery was the discovery of other antibiotics produced by soil microbes, including chloramphenicol, neomycin, terramycin, and tetracyclin by the early 1950s


General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs l.jpg
General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs

  • Selective toxicity

  • Therapeutic dose

  • Toxic Dose

  • Therapeutic Index

  • Side Effects

  • Narrow-Spectrum

  • Broad Spectrum

  • Cidal vs Static

  • Minimal Inhibitory Concentration

  • Minimal Lethal Concentration


Detemining the level of antimicrobial activity l.jpg
Detemining the level of Antimicrobial Activity

  • Dilution Susceptibility Tests

  • Disk Diffission tests

  • Etest

  • Measurement of Drug Concentration in the Blood


Mechanisms of antibacterial drug action l.jpg
Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drug Action

  • Prescott, table 35.4


Factors influencing effectiveness l.jpg
Factors Influencing Effectiveness

  • Ability of the drug to reach the site of infection

  • Route of administration

  • Rate at which the drug is eliminated from the body

  • Susceptibility of the pathegen to the drug

  • Level of the drug must exceed the pathogen’s MIC value at the site of infection


Drug resistance l.jpg
Drug Resistance

  • Mechanisms of Drug resistance

  • Origin of Drug Resistance in a microbial population

  • Drug resistance genes on chromosomes and plasmids

  • Transmission of resistance genes between bacteria


ad