a study of the secure digital music initiative
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A Study of the Secure Digital Music Initiative Brandon Sutler Vineet Aggarwal Sachin Kamath University of Virginia CS 551 In The Red Corner… Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) RIAA – Who? $15 Billion Industry RIAA Companies – 90% all albums recorded and sold in US.

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a study of the secure digital music initiative
A Study of the Secure Digital Music Initiative

Brandon Sutler

Vineet Aggarwal

Sachin Kamath

University of Virginia

CS 551

in the red corner
In The Red Corner…

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA)

riaa who
RIAA – Who?
  • $15 Billion Industry
  • RIAA Companies – 90% all albums recorded and sold in US.
  • “Big 5” – BMG, Sony, Warner, Capitol, Universal
    • 75% of Market Share
in the blue corner
In the Blue Corner…

The Consumers (You)

the problem
The Problem
  • Proliferation of Digital Media
    • Distribution
    • Storage
  • Copyright Infringement
  • Consumer experience
where s sdmi

SDMI, Actually

SDMI, Ideally

Where’s SDMI?

RIAA

The Consumers

sdmi introduction
SDMI Introduction
  • Deliver secure digital music to consumers
  • Give good consumer experience
  • Protect artist’s right to make money
  • Protect label’s right to control industry
discussion overview
Discussion Overview
  • The big picture
  • SDMI’s plan
    • Watermarking Technology
  • Social implications
  • Conclusion
the big picture or what did we do
The Big PictureOr, What Did We Do?
  • SDMI Specification
    • Phase I
      • Watermarking
        • SDMI
        • Verance, 4Centity
    • Phase II
  • Legal Issues
  • Consumer Acceptance
the sdmi protocol
The SDMI Protocol
  • Step 1: Determine if music is SDMI Protected Content
  • Step 2: Decrypt
  • Step 3: Check trigger
  • Step 4: Play or Reject
sdmi phase i screen
SDMI Phase I Screen
  • Detect “trigger”
    • Based on watermarking technology
    • “millenium trigger”
  • Detect “Usage Rules”
    • Govern Copy, Move, Check-in/Check-out, Export, etc.
    • Not yet written!
phase i triggers
SDMI Protected Content

If trigger present

reject content

message to upgrade to Phase II displayed.

No trigger: content admitted

Unprotected Content

If trigger present

reject content

message to upgrade to Phase II displayed.

No trigger

“no more copies:” rejected

Otherwise, admitted

Phase I Triggers
digital watermarks
Digital Watermarks
  • Awarded job for SDMI
  • Electronic DNA©
  • Interwoven tag
    • Digital Noise
    • 15 second interval
  • Stored Information
    • Copy permissions, Identifier tag, Additional Info
digital watermark spec
Digital Watermark Spec.

Content Owner Tag (8 bits)

Additional Info (optional 60 bits)

Copy Permissions (4 bits)

- Copy once, never, unlimited…

phase ii
Phase II

Content

Phase II Mark present

Mark not present

Compressed

Not compressed

ADMIT

Supposed to be

ADMIT

Not supposed to be

ADMIT

NOT YET WRITTEN

REJECT

legal issues
Legal Issues
  • Possible antitrust violations
    • SDMI is a “specification, not an agreement”
    • Neutral industry standards that benefit consumers are not inherently illegal

But what is the benefit to the artists?

legal issues17
Legal Issues
  • Fair Use
  • Backwards compatibility
    • Example
  • Default limit: four copies
  • No interoperability
social issues
Social Issues
  • RIAA inspections
  • Backwards compatibility
  • Non-compliance
  • Hacker tools would make circumventing copy protection routine
  • No interoperability
  • Consumer Cost:Benefit
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Although a decent attempt, SDMI will fail in the long run
    • Three points of failure:
      • Lack of consumer support
      • Legal challenge just around the corner
      • Failure to come up with “Phase II”
        • Too much, too fast
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