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The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800. Global Interdependence and Exchange. Trio of Empires. Ottoman Empire (1289-1918) Safavid Empire (1501-1722) Mughal Empire (1523-1739). Islam. Central to nation-state expansion Religion, culture & civilization

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The islamic gunpowder empires 1500 1800 l.jpg

The Islamic Gunpowder Empires1500-1800

Global Interdependence and Exchange


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Trio of Empires

  • Ottoman Empire (1289-1918)

  • Safavid Empire (1501-1722)

  • Mughal Empire (1523-1739)


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Islam

  • Central to nation-state expansion

  • Religion, culture & civilization

  • Quran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed.

  • Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life.


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5 Pillars of Islam

  • Declaration of Islam

  • Prayer

  • Fasting – Ramadan

  • Almsgiving – Zakat

  • Pilgrimage - Hajj


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Islam is not monolithic

  • Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims.

  • Shi’a – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty.

  • Sufi – Mystic tradition.


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Ottoman Empire 1298-1918

  • First of the three

  • Reached its peak in 1600

  • Survived through WWI

  • Present day Turkey


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Ottoman – Beginnings

  • Grew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol Rule

  • Ghazi Warriors

  • Osman Bey


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Empire Building 1300-1400

  • Janissaries (yeni cheri)

  • Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia

  • Official recognition of Orthodox Christian Church

  • Invasion of Timur destroyed most of empire


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Mehmed the Conqueror 1451-81

  • Taking of Constantinople

  • “Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas” – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and Asia

  • Artillery & naval power


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Military Campaigns 1480-1520

  • Shift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and Persia

  • Fierce campaign against the Safavids

  • Mecca and Medina


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Suleyman I 1520-66

  • Suleyman the Magnificent

  • Height of the Ottoman Empire

  • Further move into Europe

  • Renewed hostilities with Safavids


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Franco-Ottoman Alliance 1536

  • Roman Empire vs France

  • Ottomans sided with France

  • Cornerstone of European diplomacy

  • Countered other European alliances

  • Suleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires


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Relations with Safavids

  • Renewed hostilities

  • Took Baghdad and Tabriz, the capital

  • By 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red Sea

  • Treaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids


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Death and Decline

  • Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565

  • Suleyman died in 1566

  • By 1600 lost much of its power

  • Survived until the end of WWI


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Safavid Empire 1501-1722

  • Origins as a religious sect

  • Officially a Shi’ite empire

  • Short lived

  • Present day Iran


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Shah Ismail 1501-26

  • Twelver Shi’ism official religion

  • Violent conversion

  • Qizilbash

  • Claimed Ottoman land


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Instability 1524-87

  • Death of Ismail – 1524

  • Power struggle among Qizilbash

  • Move to more secular administration

  • Attempt to return to Sunni origins

  • Number of rulers unable to stabilize empire


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Abbas the Great 1587-1629

  • Rejuvenated empire

  • Quelled internal revolts

  • Faced Ottomans

  • Enhanced trade with Europeans


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Domestic Affairs

  • Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting

  • Centralization of power

  • Relocation of capital to Isfahan


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Conflict with the Ottomans

  • Peace Treaty of 1590

  • Retook Tabriz in 1605

  • Recaptured Baghdad 1623

  • By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I


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Europeans

  • Concluded new trade agreements to offset losses to Portuguese

  • Traded Persian silks with English

  • Became middleman for Indian goods

  • Allied with British against Ottomans


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Decline

  • Abbas I feared ascension to throne

  • Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princes

  • No shah was prepared to hold empire together

  • Fell to Afghan invaders


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Mughal Empire 1523-1739

  • Struggle to consolidate

  • Succession of strong rulers

  • Eventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19th century


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Founding of the empire

  • Previous examples of positive Muslim-Hindu relations

  • Babur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan)

  • Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery


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Humayun 1530-56

  • Unstable administration

  • Brothers challenged for the throne

  • Race for territory with Sher Shah

  • Held onto Mughal Empire


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Akbar 1556-1605

  • Consolidated and expanded empire

  • Put down challenges to the throne

  • Continued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions


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Conquest and Expansion

  • Rajasthan

  • Province of Bengal

  • Hindustan Plain

  • Province of Kashmir


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Religion & Administration

  • Tolerated Hindu religion

  • Invited missionaries to teach tenets of Christianity

  • Moved away from orthodox Islam


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Transition

  • Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent

  • Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims

  • Social unrest


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Imperial Islamic Society

  • Military Nation-State

  • Economics

  • Islam & Art


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Military Nation-State

  • Empires legitimized rule with military conquest

  • Armies were important part of leadership

  • Use of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare


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Economics

  • Trade – extensive routes

  • Agriculture and commerce

  • Point of exchange


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Islam & Art

  • Architecture

  • Poetry

  • Painting


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Decline of Islamic Empires

  • Limits of military state

  • Economic stagnation

  • Cultural islands


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Limits of Military State

  • Inconsistent leadership

  • Costly wars of conquest

  • Internal dissention and competition


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Economic Stagnation

  • Weak middle-class

  • Trade routes began to move onto the sea routes

  • Loss of revenue with loss of territory


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Cultural Isolation

  • European interest was not reciprocated

  • Resistance to outside cultural influences

  • Faith and tradition vs. technology


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Conclusion

  • Empires represented growing interdependence

  • Exchange of people, ideas and technology

  • Use of artillery changed warfare

  • Legacy of art, religion and nation


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