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The Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1500-1800. Global Interdependence and Exchange. Trio of Empires. Ottoman Empire (1289-1918) Safavid Empire (1501-1722) Mughal Empire (1523-1739). Islam. Central to nation-state expansion Religion, culture & civilization

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the islamic gunpowder empires 1500 1800

The Islamic Gunpowder Empires1500-1800

Global Interdependence and Exchange

trio of empires
Trio of Empires
  • Ottoman Empire (1289-1918)
  • Safavid Empire (1501-1722)
  • Mughal Empire (1523-1739)
islam
Islam
  • Central to nation-state expansion
  • Religion, culture & civilization
  • Quran – Holy book. Revelations given to Mohammed.
  • Sharia – Totality of political, religious, social and private life.
5 pillars of islam
5 Pillars of Islam
  • Declaration of Islam
  • Prayer
  • Fasting – Ramadan
  • Almsgiving – Zakat
  • Pilgrimage - Hajj
islam is not monolithic
Islam is not monolithic
  • Sunni – Approximately 90% of Muslims.
  • Shi’a – Re-established with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty.
  • Sufi – Mystic tradition.
ottoman empire 1298 1918
Ottoman Empire 1298-1918
  • First of the three
  • Reached its peak in 1600
  • Survived through WWI
  • Present day Turkey
ottoman beginnings
Ottoman – Beginnings
  • Grew from remnants of Turkic peoples after fall of Mongol Rule
  • Ghazi Warriors
  • Osman Bey
empire building 1300 1400
Empire Building 1300-1400
  • Janissaries (yeni cheri)
  • Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia
  • Official recognition of Orthodox Christian Church
  • Invasion of Timur destroyed most of empire
mehmed the conqueror 1451 81
Mehmed the Conqueror 1451-81
  • Taking of Constantinople
  • “Sovereign of the Two Lands and the Two Seas” – Established Ottoman Empire in Europe and Asia
  • Artillery & naval power
military campaigns 1480 1520
Military Campaigns 1480-1520
  • Shift focus from Christian Europe to Islamic Empires in Egypt and Persia
  • Fierce campaign against the Safavids
  • Mecca and Medina
suleyman i 1520 66
Suleyman I 1520-66
  • Suleyman the Magnificent
  • Height of the Ottoman Empire
  • Further move into Europe
  • Renewed hostilities with Safavids
franco ottoman alliance 1536
Franco-Ottoman Alliance 1536
  • Roman Empire vs France
  • Ottomans sided with France
  • Cornerstone of European diplomacy
  • Countered other European alliances
  • Suleyman able to focus on conquest of other Islamic Empires
relations with safavids
Relations with Safavids
  • Renewed hostilities
  • Took Baghdad and Tabriz, the capital
  • By 1538 controlled Persian Gulf and Red Sea
  • Treaty of 1555 returned Tabriz to Safavids
death and decline
Death and Decline
  • Loss to Europeans at Malta - 1565
  • Suleyman died in 1566
  • By 1600 lost much of its power
  • Survived until the end of WWI
safavid empire 1501 1722
Safavid Empire 1501-1722
  • Origins as a religious sect
  • Officially a Shi’ite empire
  • Short lived
  • Present day Iran
shah ismail 1501 26
Shah Ismail 1501-26
  • Twelver Shi’ism official religion
  • Violent conversion
  • Qizilbash
  • Claimed Ottoman land
instability 1524 87
Instability 1524-87
  • Death of Ismail – 1524
  • Power struggle among Qizilbash
  • Move to more secular administration
  • Attempt to return to Sunni origins
  • Number of rulers unable to stabilize empire
abbas the great 1587 1629
Abbas the Great 1587-1629
  • Rejuvenated empire
  • Quelled internal revolts
  • Faced Ottomans
  • Enhanced trade with Europeans
domestic affairs
Domestic Affairs
  • Permanent paid army to counter Qizilbash infighting
  • Centralization of power
  • Relocation of capital to Isfahan
conflict with the ottomans
Conflict with the Ottomans
  • Peace Treaty of 1590
  • Retook Tabriz in 1605
  • Recaptured Baghdad 1623
  • By death in 1629 Safavid Empire restored to borders established by Ismail I
europeans
Europeans
  • Concluded new trade agreements to offset losses to Portuguese
  • Traded Persian silks with English
  • Became middleman for Indian goods
  • Allied with British against Ottomans
decline
Decline
  • Abbas I feared ascension to throne
  • Ceased giving provincial governorships to Safavid princes
  • No shah was prepared to hold empire together
  • Fell to Afghan invaders
mughal empire 1523 1739
Mughal Empire 1523-1739
  • Struggle to consolidate
  • Succession of strong rulers
  • Eventually absorbed by British Empire in India – mid 19th century
founding of the empire
Founding of the empire
  • Previous examples of positive Muslim-Hindu relations
  • Babur established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan)
  • Consolidated territory of Hindustan (India) with use of artillery
humayun 1530 56
Humayun 1530-56
  • Unstable administration
  • Brothers challenged for the throne
  • Race for territory with Sher Shah
  • Held onto Mughal Empire
akbar 1556 1605
Akbar 1556-1605
  • Consolidated and expanded empire
  • Put down challenges to the throne
  • Continued tradition of tolerance of Hindu traditions
conquest and expansion
Conquest and Expansion
  • Rajasthan
  • Province of Bengal
  • Hindustan Plain
  • Province of Kashmir
religion administration
Religion & Administration
  • Tolerated Hindu religion
  • Invited missionaries to teach tenets of Christianity
  • Moved away from orthodox Islam
transition
Transition
  • Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent
  • Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims
  • Social unrest
imperial islamic society
Imperial Islamic Society
  • Military Nation-State
  • Economics
  • Islam & Art
military nation state
Military Nation-State
  • Empires legitimized rule with military conquest
  • Armies were important part of leadership
  • Use of gunpowder artillery turned tables of warfare
economics
Economics
  • Trade – extensive routes
  • Agriculture and commerce
  • Point of exchange
islam art
Islam & Art
  • Architecture
  • Poetry
  • Painting
decline of islamic empires
Decline of Islamic Empires
  • Limits of military state
  • Economic stagnation
  • Cultural islands
limits of military state
Limits of Military State
  • Inconsistent leadership
  • Costly wars of conquest
  • Internal dissention and competition
economic stagnation
Economic Stagnation
  • Weak middle-class
  • Trade routes began to move onto the sea routes
  • Loss of revenue with loss of territory
cultural isolation
Cultural Isolation
  • European interest was not reciprocated
  • Resistance to outside cultural influences
  • Faith and tradition vs. technology
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Empires represented growing interdependence
  • Exchange of people, ideas and technology
  • Use of artillery changed warfare
  • Legacy of art, religion and nation
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