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The Asian Broad Bans:. Laws affecting freedom of expression on the Internet. BURMA . Computer Science Development Law 1996 Web Regulation 2000 Emergency Provision Act 1950 Official Secrets Act 1923 State Protection Law 1975. CHINA.

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The Asian Broad Bans:

Laws affecting freedom of expression on the Internet


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BURMA

  • Computer Science Development Law 1996

  • Web Regulation 2000

  • Emergency Provision Act 1950

  • Official Secrets Act 1923

  • State Protection Law 1975


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CHINA

  • Complex series of laws and regulations that control the access to and publication of material online.

  • Over 60 online writers have been detained.

  • Most of them were imprisoned and charged under the Criminal Code.

  • pornography on the Internet (State Council Order No.195, 1 February 1996)

  • Other laws: Law on Protection of State Secret


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INDIA and PAKISTAN

  • India

    • IT Act (2000) regulates e-commerce, hacking, privacy

    • Yahoo website was blocked for promoting sedition.

  • Pakistan

    • censors “anti-Islamic” and “blasphemous” websites.

    • In March 2006, Supreme Court directed government to block internet sites displaying sacrilegious cartoons.

    • Laws that can be used: Penal Code, Maintenance of Public Order ordinance, Anti-terrorism law


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MALAYSIA

  • Communications and Multimedia Act

  • Penal Code/Blasphemy

  • Internal Security Act

  • Official Secrets Act

  • Sedition Act

  • Defamation Act

  • College and University Act


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SINGAPORE

  • Singapore's Internet content regulation depends primarily on access controls (such as requiring political sites to register for a license) and legal pressures (such as defamation lawsuits and the threat of imprisonment)

  • Telecommunication Act

  • Bloggers registration with theMedia Development Authority (MDA) if they want to openly and regularly defend a political line.

  • During election: no online discussion about politics at all.

  • Other laws: Official Secrets Act, Sedition Act, Internal Security Act


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VIETNAM

  • Internet Law

  • web content is extensively censored and email is monitored

  • 7 cyber-dissidents are in prison; most accused of spying and sentenced to up to 12 years in prison.

  • Criminal Code: spying (Article 80), propaganda against the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Article 88); illegally using information in computer networks (Article 226)

  • Various decrees and directives


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Other Asian Countries

  • Bangladesh: Official Secrets Act, Special Power Act, Defamation

  • Cambodia: UNTAC Penal Code, draft Penal Code (defamation and insult)

  • East Timor: draft Penal Code (criminal defamation)

  • Japan: Public Offices Election Law

  • Indonesia: criminal and civil defamation laws; Anti-terrorism law; draft Antipornography and pornaction


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Other Asian Countries

  • Nepal: revised TADO

  • Philippines: draft Anti-Terrorism bill, Penal Code (incitement to rebellion or insurrectiondefamation)

  • South Korea: law on viewing and distributing materials on the Internet, National Security Law

  • Sri Lanka: contempt of court

  • Thailand: Defamation laws in Criminal and Civil Codes.


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Conclusion

  • Bloggers and on-line media are vulnerable to legal prosecution.

  • Defamation, sedition, OSA, ISA, anti-terrorism laws can be used to repress on-line FOE.


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Want to know more?

  • http://www.article19.org/publications/regions/asia/index.html


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